Social Adaptation Technology
One of the leading technologies of social work with a person in the problem is social adaptation (from Latin adaption - adaptation ). Adapt to any situation - this means confidently resisting negative influences, actively manifesting itself in a particular activity as a goal-setting creative person.
Unfortunately, there are no studies that would reveal the nature of the mechanism of social adaptation and its varieties. The adaptive mechanism is most often understood as the sum of the means by which the adaptive potential of the subject is activated and self-realized to restore the disturbed equilibrium in the adaptant - Adaptive Environment .
An adaptive mechanism is included when an adaptive situation occurs. Internal discomfort and tension at the time of detection of disharmony in relations of different levels or manifestations of unresolved contradictions at the individual level forces him to seek a way out of the uncomfortable situation. In such cases, N. Hartman notes, the human initiative is not only situationally defined, but also situationalized. A person must act in a situation, the situation is coercion to resolve. Thus, an adaptive situation creates an adaptive need for it.
Need is understood as a condition that is caused by dissatisfaction with the biological requirements of the organism, or social conditions (labor, communication), or spiritual conditions (creation, creativity) necessary for normal life. Need is an internal motivator of human activity in the problem.
Adaptive Need - is a person's adjustment to overcome the adaptive situation, his desire in some cases - bring his templates behavior in accordance with the changed conditions of the social environment to achieve the old goals, in other cases - change (or change) the environment, which would make possible the achievement of new goals.
Therefore, the subject of social adaptation is a person, a family. The close interaction of such components as environmental conditions, objective social conditions (social origin, educational level) and, of course, the individual himself, contribute to more effective development of social adaptation mechanisms.
The process of adaptation is associated with the socialization of man, his ingrowth into the social world, which involves active participation both in consumption and in the transfer of socially significant norms and values of the existing and past environment. In essence, social adaptation is the most important mechanism and specific form of human socialization.
However, if the process of socialization of a person proceeds through the accumulation and assimilation of previous experience, then the mechanism of social adaptation is more rapid: it is necessary to actively remove the established social precedents in a relatively short period of time.
The formation of the mechanisms of social adaptation of a person passes in three main phases: activity, communication, self-awareness.
These phases characterize the social essence of the formation of the mechanisms of social adaptation of man. This is not just a change in external reality, but also the disclosure and normalization of its hidden potentials that help to fully integrate into the processes of social functioning.
Social self-awareness - This is the mechanism of social adaptation of a person when he shapes and interprets his social role. The social worker acts as a psychologist - a teacher seeking to form a partial and active position of a person.
The process of human adaptation to the new conditions of life includes the following components, based on a correct assessment of the changes taking place, excluding pessimism, despondency, indifference:
1) psychological adaptation, in particular acceptance of new conditions, awareness of positive moments, benefits and advantages;
2) physiological adaptation, because the new conditions often lead to a decrease or a complete lack of physical activity, a change in rhythm and mode of life;
3) social adaptation, including the formed living space, filled with social contacts, which contribute to the person in the performance of social roles and functions.
Many people (especially the elderly) refuse active social activities and appeal to the family, nature, religion, when there are difficulties associated with finding adequate ways of adaptation, uncertainty not only about the future, but also about the present.
The aggressive-offensive attitude, characteristic of some elderly people, their intolerance to change is highly undesirable from the point of view of social stability of society. At the same time, a significant proportion of older people can be adapted and bring substantial benefits to society.
It is very important to create a proper social atmosphere, to realize the importance of adapting the elderly and disabled people, because if there is a correct assessment of the phenomenon, then it is not difficult to find the right solution. We need an individual approach, we must proceed from the needs, characteristics of a particular individual: his inclinations, tastes, etc. At the same time, it is necessary to look for some regularities of adaptation processes and model solutions that should be taken into account in the process of social work with a person.
The system of social adaptation includes industrial, household and leisure adaptation.
Production adaptation occurs in the course of the work of the individual. At the same time, such qualities as professionalism, labor activity, initiative, competence and independence develop. The problem of professional adaptation is solved, which includes two stages: preparatory and immediate.
Household adaptation forms certain skills, attitudes, habits, and also covers various relationships that develop in the family, relationships with relatives, neighbors and acquaintances.
Recreational adaptation involves the formation of settings and abilities to maintain health.
Any of the types of social adaptation requires not only certain abilities of a person, but also well-established effective work of social service institutions, designed to help a person at various stages of his development.
In this regard, the role of social work in the activities of various social services to provide the necessary assistance to a person increases. Social services are called upon to regulate the mechanisms of its relationship with the social environment. The development of the mechanisms of social adaptation is only due to the active activity of a person, which is activated by his need to transform the existing social reality.
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