Social Rehabilitation Technology
The term rehabilitation (from latelate rahabilitatio - "recovery") is widely used in medicine and psychology, and since 1991 - in social work. Researchers have different interpretations of this concept. There were also the concepts of "complex rehabilitation", "social rehabilitation", which are used, as a rule, in dealing with people with disabilities. Theoretically, the content of these concepts has not been worked out, which makes it possible to use them in various interpretations, but it does not allow developing rehabilitative practice in relation to other categories of the population: persons with deviant behavior, convicts, orphans, elderly people, etc.
It seems that rehabilitation should be seen as the restoration of the individual's lost functions, relationships and roles of social functioning, professional skills and interaction skills with the world.
In accordance with these provisions, the following types of rehabilitation are allocated: medical, social, professional, psychological, household.
Consider the essence and content of social rehabilitation. It seems that social rehabilitation should be considered in a broad and narrow interpretation.social rehabilitation - is the creation of conditions in society for the restoration and development of the abilities and skills of the independent social functioning of individuals. In a narrow interpretation, social rehabilitation is a system of forms, methods and means of restoring an individual's lost, or not acquired in the process of socialization functions, relationships and roles of social functioning.
Social rehabilitation is also a process of purposeful activity with the individual to restore the skills and abilities of social functions, relationships and roles lost or not acquired in the course of socialization.
The methodological basis of this approach is the study of the structure and functioning of the client's personality, social roles and social status. These studies were conducted by American researchers H. Perlman, S. Briard, G. Miller. Social roles are the engine of the social well-being of the individual.
By social functioning is understood the ability of the individual to independently interact with the surrounding world, to ensure their livelihoods and livelihoods of the family, meet the established and generally accepted in society morality and morality.
If a person has lost or not acquired in the process of socialization the skills and skills of building social relations and functions, then it is necessary to teach him how these skills and abilities (family, labor, education, friendship, health promotion, cultural level, life) to create or restore.
If a person has lost or did not acquire social roles in the process of socialization (wife, husband, grandmother, grandfather, father, mother, son, daughter, citizen, neighbor, buyer, worker, friend, student, etc.), these roles need to be developed, restored or taught to exercise.
There are two types of levels of social rehabilitation.
1. Federal, regional, local levels.
2. The level of individual and group work.
At the federal, regional and local levels of social rehabilitation, a system of organizational, legal, economic information and educational measures is being built. The measures envisage the creation and functioning of a system of rehabilitation social services of various departmental subordination and various forms of ownership.
At federal, regional, and local levels , the following actions are performed:
1) the creation of a legislative framework that provides the legal field of rehabilitation activities;
2) determination of the directions of training bachelors and masters of social work, social pedagogues, rehabilitation specialists, psychologists, providing the activity of rehabilitation social services;
3) creation of economic conditions for entrepreneurial and commercial activities in the field of rehabilitation;
4) development of regulations on the procedure for providing rehabilitation services to various categories of citizens;
5) coordination of the activity of the system of rehabilitation social services of various departmental subordination and various forms of ownership;
6) provision of premises for the organization and functioning of rehabilitation social services, etc.
At level of individual and group social rehabilitation work social services apply technology or a system of tools, forms, methods and techniques for restoring lost or not acquired by an individual skills and abilities to perform social functions and roles, the formation of the necessary social relations.
Social rehabilitation facilities - are individuals or groups who need to restore lost or not acquired skills and skills in the process of socialization in interaction in the system of social relations and social roles./strong>
People with disabilities, former prisoners, graduates of residential institutions, elderly people, asocial families, homeless, neglected children, etc., can be objects of social rehabilitation.
Subjects of social rehabilitation - are professionals in the social sphere: bachelors and masters of social work, social educators, rehabilitologists, psychologists who own technology and have practical skills in restoring lost or not acquired skills in the performance of social functions and roles.
The environment of social rehabilitation - is the environment of residence and functioning, social services, piling activity, recreation, study, creativity, information.
The institutions of social rehabilitation are the state service of medical and social expertise, social service institutions, social shelters, social rehabilitation centers, family and child care centers, post-institutional adaptation centers, social hotels, social services centers, etc. ., as well as institutions of education and upbringing (kindergarten, school, university), institutions of additional education and training (centers for the development of human potential, vocational guidance and training centers , foster family, labor collective).
As it was already said, the technology of social rehabilitation involves the restoration of lost or acquired socialization skills in the process of socialization and roles. In this connection, the technology of social rehabilitation is objectively connected with the technologies of social diagnostics, social adaptation, socialization, guardianship, guardianship, adoption, correction, prevention, social services, social expertise.
Consider the social rehabilitation of older people. First of all, it is necessary to determine which groups of older people need it, and then consider the technology for its implementation. There are two groups: elderly people with behavioral disabilities, antisocial manifestations and the elderly, striving for active social functioning.
The following groups of people refer and obviously need rehabilitation in the following categories of elderly people:
1) returning from places of deprivation of liberty;
2) experiencing domestic violence;
3) living alone;
4) People with disabilities;
5) abusing alcohol or drugs;
6) the faces of the group "homeless" and others
The second group includes widows, widowers who retired, but who want to work in another field, etc.
In the process of rehabilitation, for example, for older people returning from places of deprivation of liberty, it is necessary to restore the skills of a social hostel, to teach life skills in the new economic conditions, to restore labor and professional skills, to develop skills of ethical behavior in everyday life, in the family, with wife, children, neighbors, etc.
All participants in the rehabilitation space should be engaged in solving these tasks: the clients themselves, the district employees, social work specialists, social pedagogues, psychologists of the social institutions in which these elderly people live.
Methods of working with such elderly people are divided into individual and group. As forms and techniques, use conversations, role plays, various types of therapies, group activities, counseling, etc.
In the centers of social services, the following types of rehabilitation technologies for the elderly are used: psychological, social, medical, leisure, social, etc.Complex rehabilitation is the result of all costs and actions that provide an opportunity for people who are inferior due to congenital malformations, illnesses or accidents, to lead a normal way of life, to find a place in society, to fully manifest their abilities.
For such people an individual rehabilitation program is prepared, which is a system of activities that develop the capabilities of the disabled person. The program is developed by a team of specialists (consisting of a doctor, a specialist in social work, a teacher, a psychologist, etc.) along with relatives. In many countries, such a program is managed by one specialist - it can be any of the listed specialists who monitor and coordinate the rehabilitation program (specialist curator). The system of measures takes into account both the state of health and the features of its development, as well as the opportunities and needs of the family. The rehabilitation program can be developed for different terms - depending on the age and conditions of development of the disabled person.
After a fixed period, the curator (usually a specialist in social work) meets with the family to discuss the results achieved, successes and failures. It is also necessary to analyze the positive and negative unplanned events that occurred during the execution of the program.
After that, a specialist (team of specialists) together with a disabled person develop a rehabilitation program for the next period.
The rehabilitation program is a clear plan, a scheme of joint actions of a person and specialists, contributing to the development of his abilities, health improvement, social adaptation (for example, vocational guidance). And it is necessary to provide activities for other members of the disabled family: the acquisition of special knowledge, psychological support, family help in organizing recreation, restoring forces, etc. Each period of the program has a goal that is divided into a number of sub-targets, since it is necessary to work in several directions at once, connecting various specialists to the rehabilitation process.
To draw up such a program, it is necessary to have clear, concrete ideas about the problems of the functioning, psychological development and socialization of the disabled person.
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