The basic paradigms of the sociology of labor, the...

Basic paradigms of labor sociology

The formation of labor research in sociology

The problematic field of labor research began to take shape at the classical stage of the development of economic sociology. In the works of K. Marx, E. Durkheim, M. Weber and other scientists, various social and cultural aspects of labor were investigated. In the works of K. Marx presents the fundamental theoretical studies of the social essence of labor, the essence and nature of the alienation of labor in the conditions of capitalist production. At the heart of his approach to the problem of alienation in his early work "Economical and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844" was a humanistic anthropology, suggesting that labor is the main means of self-realization and self-development of man, and forms the basis of his "generic essence", which distinguishes man from all other living beings. The main problem was seen by K. Marx in private ownership of the means of production in a capitalist society, creating prerequisites for the exploitation and alienation of labor (for more details, see Chapter 2).

The role of the division of labor in the development of society is revealed E. Durkheim in the study "On the division of social labor". It was in the division of labor that Durkheim saw the main source of social solidarity, integration and unity of society, for the need for the exchange of human activities and products implies that members of society are interrelated and interdependent. Different historical forms of the division of labor determine, according to Durkheim, various types of social solidarity - mechanical and organic, and pathologies in the division of labor cause social anomie, social inequality and social antagonisms. Great contribution to the sociological understanding of the problems of labor was made by M. Weber , who researched his socio-cultural motivation, specificity in the context of various economic practices, especially the importance of the transformation of labor into a moral duty and the way of self-realization of the individual for the genesis of rational capitalism. His concept of Protestant work ethic in the middle of XX century. formed the basis for the creation of the "Scale of Protestant Ethics", designed to investigate work ethics and motivation of work.

At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. in the USA and Western Europe, industrial sociology develops as a science that studies social relations and the social structure of industrial enterprises, firms and organizations in order to increase efficiency and productivity.

One of the main problems solved by industrial sociology is the provision of social stability and class peace in industrial enterprises. The development of industrial sociology has formed a tradition in which the subject field of the sociology of labor is precisely industrial production, while agricultural labor is studied in the sociology of the village.

Studies conducted within the framework of industrial sociology, revealed the main problem that became central to the whole sociology of labor in the XX century. Worker and features of his consciousness, behavior, motivation began to be considered as one of the main resources of modern industrial production, the problem consists in disclosing the possibilities of using the employee's personal reserves to improve the efficiency and productivity of his work. The very formulation of such a problem is possible only under certain social conditions, first of all, when the employee is personally free, and the arsenal of sanctions applied to him is limited.

The most important methodological shift in the framework of industrial sociology was the rejection of anthropological, historical, moral and philosophical approaches to the analysis of the place of the worker in production in favor of the application of the model of the "economic man." Instead of the bearer of the mission of transforming the world, the idea of ​​self-realization through work, etc., the employee began to be seen as a participant in the exchange relationship, offering his work for a certain amount of benefits. Accordingly, all qualities of the "economic man" are attributed to him; - rationality, focus on maximizing remuneration, ie. wages. Some researchers and practitioners based their constructions on the assumption of the selfishness and individualism of an employee in an industrial enterprise, considering his social and cultural characteristics and needs insignificant. This approach was particularly vividly manifested in the paradigm of labor management at the industrial enterprise of F. Taylor and G. Ford, which was called "Fordism".

In our country, "plant sociology"; began to develop in the second half of the 50's. XX century. (see also Chapter 1 for this). In the 1960s. a group of Leningrad sociologists, led by VA Yadov, conducted a study in which, based on a survey of 2500 respondents, the motivation of labor at a large industrial enterprise was analyzed. The conclusions of sociologists turned out to be revolutionary for the USSR of that period, since they showed that along with creativity and self-realization, pragmatic aspects, in the first place wages, are also of interest in the work of workers. In the early 2000's. Together with AG Zdravomyslov, a second survey of workers with the same socio-demographic characteristics was carried out at the same enterprises, and it was concluded that the labor motivation of United States workers has the same structure as workers in countries with a market economy. A comparison was made with the data of the 1960s. and published the work "Man and his work in the USSR and after" (2003).

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