This paper analyzes the interpersonal issues bordering homeless households and explains the scope of the condition within the U. S. community, while assessing the U. S. community to other neighborhoods in other areas of the global system. Triggers detailed in this paper include unemployment, mental health problems, drug or alcohol abuse, and lack of affordable cover. Three theoretical models guide the research: communal systems theory, functionalist theory and turmoil theory. The data come from statistics of homeless households in the U. S. and global neighborhoods. These results deliver some proof for current explanations for homeless transitions, plus they propose probable strategies for extra research on the dynamics of homelessness.
Macro Community Analysis
Homelessness is a substantial matter within the U. S. and global community. This example arises when its folks are poverty stricken and do not have regular access to affordable housing. Inside the U. S. in the early 1980s, households with young children became one of the quickest growing segments of the homeless people and now consist of 34% of the homeless people, which includes 23% children and 11% parents (Burt et al. , 1999). The problems of homelessness have always been a problem surrounding the world, even though it varies greatly, it has been regarded as one of the oldest cultural dilemmas in the world. Any day, no less than 800, 000 individuals are homeless in the U. S. , including about 200, 000 homeless families. Most homeless people have earnings below 50% of the national poverty level that makes it nearly impossible for them to find rentals property within their means. To create matters worse, as many as 70% of homeless people struggle with serious health problems, mental and physical disabilities, and/or drug abuse problems (Burt, 2001). Countries have various ways of reporting homelessness, dissimilar procedures with which to specify homelessness. Some countries have no policy regarding this problem at all and for that reason are unable to record on the figures.
Causes and Effects of Homelessness
As brought up, homeless is also a global issue rather than problems specific to the U. S. It is
estimated to be around 3 million homeless individuals in 15 countries of the European Union.
Philip Alston, Chairperson of the UN Committee on Economic, Community and Cultural Privileges since
1991 says that "on any given night, three quarters of any million people in the United States are
homeless; in Toronto, Canada's most significant city, 6, 500 people stayed in emergency shelters on a
typical evening in past due 1997, a two-thirds upsurge in just one year" (Unicef, 1998).
Furthermore, misuse and assault appear to be silent characteristics of homelessness. Studies have frequently found, in the histories of both individuals and individuals who are homeless, high rates of intimate and physical mistreatment in childhood, frequent foster good care and other out of-home placements, and a variant of other family disruptions. Those that are always getting assaulted by their own families might choose to hightail it and seek shelter in the streets than consent to a life of day-to-day abuse from beatings and molestation. The most significant explanations why people become homeless may be because of the inaccessibility of affordable cover for low income people. Studies show that people will probably become homeless out of inescapable situations. You can find people who do work however they earn too little to pay for hire, electric, gas, and other cover utilities and expenditures. When a person becomes unemployed, they will be unable to purchase anything at all.
Homeless People Demographics
Although homelessness is a hard number to measure, one way to analyze the amount of the problem is through demographics. Based on the National Focus on Family Homelessness (2008), the normal sheltered homeless family is made up of a mother in her later twenties with two children.
Most single-parent families are female-headed (71%). Single-parent young families are one of the poorest in the nation and as such, are extremely vulnerable to homelessness
Several family shelters do not take men into their programs, causing family members to separate when they become homeless
Forty-three percent are African-American
Fifteen percent are Hispanic
Thirty-eight percent are White, non-Hispanic
Three percent are Local American
Fifty-three percent of homeless moms don't have a high school diploma
Twenty-nine percent of adults in homeless households are working
Forty-two percent of children in homeless family members are under time six (The Country wide Focus on Family Homelessness, 2008).
The lack of reasonable real estate has led to high rent payments for people that already struggle to pay their bills. These issues force many families to be homeless every day. A solution is always to lower the cost of property, provide more support for those that are in need, and then for the government to recognize that homelessness is a big size problem.
Application of Theory
Social Systems Theory
Social inequality is shown worldwide stemming from situations of contest, gender, and age. An individual's interpersonal environment includes all situations a person comes into contact with on the day-to-day basis including the individual's home, job, and income level, and the communal rules that govern them. Person-in-environment refers to interaction between an individual and the multiple systems bordering that each, and adaptation identifies one's capacity to change in order to adapt to new situations. To be able to endure, a person must have the ability to function effectively within their social surroundings (Kirst-Ashman & Hull, 2002).
The important factor behind the social selection model is that homelessness signifies the ultimate point in an activity seen as a the slow reduced amount of an individual's interpersonal and financial resources. As a person's chemical use escalates, the person's financial reserves are worn out as they sustain an extremely expensive ''behavior. " They either belong to rent debt that leads to eviction (Bessant et al. , 2002), or family associations break down resulting in homelessness (Coumans & Spreen, 2003). Fountain and Howes discovered that 63% of their test of homeless people in Britain known as drug or liquor use as grounds for first becoming homeless. The researchers decided that ''medication use is typically seen as one of the major routes into homelessness, and this was borne out by our study'' (Fountain & Howes, 2002, p. 10). This compares to these U. S. percentages that contain reported drug and alcohol mistreatment as one of the causes of homelessness.
Homelessness can be described by functionalism, a theory developed by Durkheim. Poverty is best known from a mixed perspective involving turmoil, by Karl Marx and functionalist, by Emile Durkheim. Since poverty certainly is important in a homelessness community, this theory certainly applies. For me, functionalist theory points out our country does actually help those in need but occasionally we can be unsuccessful. This theory continues to remind us to live a life practically and says us that the cultural order will essentially work (Meyerhoff 2006).
Regrettably, at this time, scientific studies of family homelessness have been struggling to instantaneously reflect all of these possible risk factors. Most of the research can be divided into those studies that present family homelessness as the product of separate faces or of community conditions, without examining both factors alongside one another (Shlay & Rossi, 1992).
Conflict theory, which is significant to the examination of the homeless condition, is the belief that the method of mental capacity and mental achievements is important in the willpower of what hobbies will be articulated effectively. Issue theory studies the macro degree of our contemporary society, its buildings and organizations. While functionalists dispute that world is held mutually norms, worth, and a morality, issue theorists consider how modern culture is held jointly by electricity and coercion for the good thing about those in electricity (Ritzer, 2000).
Though individuals and communities appreciating great riches, prestige, and electricity possess the resources needed to impose their beliefs on others with fewer resources, Max Weber, a theorist viewed a variety of category divisions in society as normal, inescapable, and suitable, as do many modern day turmoil theorists (Curran & Renzetti, 2001). Weber's theory segregated the class of people into bourgeoisie and proletariat. Bourgeoisie are those capitalist who have the means of production while the proletariat is regarded as as the working class; they are the ones who sell their own labor vitality. These groupings show how people are grouped according with their status in life. It basically identifies the society's state of inequality that is stabilized and reproduced through cultural ideology (Meyerhoff 2006).
Social Sick within Turley Homelessness
Poverty and inequality is constantly on the afflict many residents in Turley, Oklahoma. The very best theory that explains the social ill in Turley, Oklahoma, is conflict theory. One of the conflicts impacting Turley residents is having less travel and close healthcare facilities. Without usage of vehicles, residents cannot reach work or even to doctors or hospitals easily. Weber's theory segregated the class of people into bourgeoisie the "haves", and the "have-nots" were called proletariat. It would be ideal if Marx's notion of creating a fundamentally "equal" society where there is no competition for riches and ability (Meyerhoff, 2006). It is known that many of Turley residents have less than other communities. Among the social ills within the Turley community is the countless houses that are forgotten, boarded up, dropping down or even burned-out by vandalism, which results in nominal to no cover for Turley residents. Also, from low income or unemployment, this can be caused by lack of transportation. This can lead to individuals becoming frustrated and utilizing drugs or alcoholic beverages as a coping mechanism. Extended use of drugs or liquor may lead to a mental disorder. Individuals who have complicated life issues related to mental illness and of medication or liquor use are the most common people who tend to be homeless. There is a common perception that drug abuse and homelessness are associated, but there is certainly appreciable contention about the path of the relationship (Kemp, Neale, & Robertson, 2006; Mallett, Rosenthal, & Keys, 2005; Neale, 2001; Snow & Anderson, 1993).
Many people in Turley, Oklahoma are homeless scheduled to lack of affordable enclosure and insufficient access to healthcare facilities, both of which makes life worse for residents with mental disorder or drug abuse problems. Severe mental health issues may be caused from drug abuse and impact people's ability to handle vital stages of everyday life, such as keeping a job, home management or even self-care. Mental diseases may also prevent folks from forming and preserving stable human relationships or cause them to misconstrue the help of others' and react in an angry manner. This often ends in driving away family, friends and caregivers who will be the force keeping that person from becoming homeless. Some studies show that substance abuse is a risk factor for homelessness, whereas others suggest that homelessness ''induces medication use'' (Neale, 2001, p. 354).
In summary, when comparing the U. S. to other global communities, the sources of homelessness were similar, with poverty being the primary cause. To effectively address homelessness, communities need a clear knowledge of the situation and realize that it could have an impact on anyone at any moment. Homelessness continues to be a growing problem and requires social action to defeat the injustice that those people suffer. A change can be produced by building or offering affordable real estate units to people who have low or very nominal income, as well as shielding people from the misuse they may get exposed to and seeking to help guide them in your path. Finally, through supporting neighborhoods with programs that assist addicted individuals to conquer their craving as well as people with mental illness by providing affordable health care programs, the homeless own an opportunity to go above their current situation.
As a kid Welfare Supervisor, I selected this particular public justice issue because several of the children that come into OKDHS guardianship will age from the system without a long term home or family, which results in almost all of them becoming homeless; this was learned in our Child Welfare Trainings. I needed to find out about this ongoing problem and feel it is very important that people help homeless people obtain an improved life.
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