Social Security Concept and Functions
Until now, domestic science has not developed a generally accepted definition of the concept of social security, although many different formulations are proposed. Since social security has several components - economic, political and legal, its concept can be disclosed with an indication of the relevant characteristics.
In the definition formulated by ML Zakharov and E. G. Tuchkova, attention is focused on the economic component. The authors consider social security as one of the ways to distribute part of the gross domestic product by providing citizens with material benefits in order to equalize their personal incomes in cases of the onset of social risks at the expense of targeted financial sources in the amount and on conditions strictly rationed by society and the state to maintain their full-fledged social status. "
M. O. Buyanova highlights the political and economic aspects. By social security, she understands the "form of expressing the state's social policy aimed at material provision of certain categories of citizens from the state budget funds and special off-budget funds in the event of events that are recognized by the state at this stage of their development as socially significant, with the goal of equalizing the position of these citizens in compared with other members of society. "
From an economic point of view, the definition proposed by LI Pronina is the most successful. In her view, social security is a combination of economic relations regarding the creation, distribution and consumption of a part of the necessary and surplus product, socialized at different levels of government and within the various forms of ownership, to meet the needs of disabled members of society and to provide, to some extent, an expanded reproduction of the population
Of great theoretical importance is the development of the concept of social security, produced by RI Ivanova, as a category having universal human value.She believes that social security is a form of distribution of material goods not in exchange for labor expended, but for the purpose of satisfying the vital personal needs (physical, social, intellectual) of the elderly, sick, disabled, children, dependents who lost their bread-winners, unemployed, all members of society in order to protect the health and the normal reproduction of labor at the expense of special funds created in the community, in cases and on conditions established in social, including legal, norms.
This definition is universal and reflects the essence of social security, regardless of the specific historical conditions (economic and political system) in which it is organized. It is based on the following stable signs:
- objective reasons that call for a special mechanism for social protection aimed at maintaining or providing a certain level of life support;
- special ways of providing a means of subsistence;
- fixing the rules for the provision of social security in social, including legal, norms.
Obviously, the essence of social security is most clearly manifested in its functions. The social security function consists of partial compensation (compensation) of labor income or intra-family maintenance lost due to age, disability, loss of bread-winner, additional expenses for the upbringing and maintenance of disabled members family, as well as in providing minimum cash or in kind assistance to low-income citizens, providing free medical services to the population. This approach is enshrined in the Law on Labor Pensions and other normative legal acts.
The source of funding for this function is public funds - insurance contributions, budgets of various levels of the US budget system.
For certain categories of payers (persons working abroad, individual entrepreneurs, lawyers), the source of funding for pensions and benefits is voluntary contributions in a fixed amount established by the US Government.
Along with the creation of the state social security system, the state encourages voluntary social insurance, additional forms of social security and charity. This means that the protection of the population against social risks can be financed both from public funds within the state system and from private sources as individual self-sufficiency or collective interdependence.Social security consists in overcoming and mitigating social conflicts, maintaining social stability in a society divided into social groups due to significant differences in income levels.
Demographic function is designed to stimulate the reproduction of the population necessary for the normal development of the country.The rehabilitation function is aimed at restoring the social status of disabled citizens and other socially weak groups of the population, which allows them to feel themselves full members of society. Preventive function is to prevent the emergence of social risks (for example, accidents at work).
The essential features of social security in a market economy are:
- the social risks that have occurred (events) as objective grounds that call for the material protection of the population by the state;
- state and non-state funds as sources of financing;
- cash payments, free medical and social services as ways of partial compensation of lost income from work activities and meeting the needs of persons affected by social risks.
Based on these signs, we can formulate the notion of social security in the economic sense. Social security is a complex system of economic relations for the redistribution of state and non-state funds, aimed at partial reimbursement of income from work, family maintenance, additional expenses for children and other disabled family members , providing free medical and social services to people who suffered as a result of social risk or other socially significant circumstances.
Social security is also one of the directions of the state's social policy, whose goal is to stabilize the socio-political situation and to involve the socially weak layers of the population in public life.
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