The concept of social risk. Types of social risks
In the life of each person, there is a danger of social risks that may affect his health and lead to a loss of income from work, which is the main source of livelihood, and in case of loss of a bread-winner - to a loss of family content.
The legal definition of social risk is contained in art. 3 of the Law on the Basics of Social Insurance. But in connection with the fact that this Law regulates the relations arising within the framework of the insurance form of protection against social risk, this feature is reflected in the definition. Social insurance risk is an "anticipated event that entails a change in the material and/or social status of working citizens and other categories of citizens when it comes to compulsory social insurance."
The above definition needs some refinement. First, the use in the text of the said article of the union or means that the object of compulsory social insurance is a possible change not only material, but also the social status of certain categories of citizens. However, the social status of "working citizens" consists precisely in the fact that they are engaged in labor activity. Paying them a pension for old age or disability or unemployment benefits in no way can restore their labor status. Compensate or minimize only the consequences of the deterioration of the financial situation caused by unemployment, disability, old age and other social risks.
Secondly, it is necessary to specify the circle of persons attributed by the legislator to "working and other categories of citizens". Obviously, not all of them are equally exposed to social risk and need material support from the state (for example, top managers, individual entrepreneurs and others whose incomes are much higher than the average level). The scope of compulsory social insurance requires more precise regulation, taking into account the situation of the subjects in the system of social organization of labor and the level of income from work.
In accordance with the theory of probability, risk is only a degree, the magnitude of the expected danger. At the time of the onset, the risk is transformed from a potential opportunity into a real event (case). Many phenomena of objective reality are likely (for example, natural disasters), but they do not relate to social risk.
The essence of social risk is that its offensive leads to the loss of the main source of livelihood in the form of income from work, as well as to additional expenses for the maintenance of disabled members of the family. As a result, the standard of living is reduced, material insecurity occurs.
It is important to note that social risk ( material insecurity) does not threaten all categories of the working population, but only those groups whose income does not exceed a certain level. Top managers, individual entrepreneurs and other groups of working citizens who receive tens of millions of rubles in bonuses and rewards, material insecurity does not threaten even with the onset of disability or old age. Large incomes allow them to create for themselves and their families a "self-defense system" in the form of savings or property that allows a whole life to lead a comfortable existence, regardless of the ability to earn means of subsistence by personal labor.
Thus, the characteristic signs that allow us to name certain events occurring in a person's life, social risk, are:
- the conditionality of the economic system and the social organization of labor;
- property consequences in the form of loss of income from work or family maintenance, additional costs for disabled members of the family;
- the interest of the state and society in mitigating and overcoming these consequences.
Given the objective nature of social risks can be divided into four groups:
- economic nature (unemployment);
- physiological character (temporary or permanent disability, pregnancy and childbirth, old age, death);
- a professional nature (labor injury, occupational disease);
- demographic and social character (large families, single-parent families, orphans).
Economic and demographic risks do not directly affect a person's ability to work. But a prolonged absence of work, of course, leads to a general decline in the standard of living of the unemployed and members of his family, as well as the loss of professional skills. In turn, increased costs due to large families can worsen the quality of nutrition, rest and other family living conditions and affect their health.
In accordance with Art. 7 of the Law on the basics of social insurance types of insurance risks are:
1) the need for medical assistance;
2) loss of earnings (payments, remunerations in favor of the insured person) or other income in connection with the occurrence of the insured event by the insured person
3) additional expenses of the insured person or his family members in connection with the occurrence of the insured event.
The foregoing allows us to formulate a definition of social risk. Social risk is a probable event, the onset of which leads to material insecurity due to loss of income from work or family maintenance, as well as the emergence of additional costs for children and others disabled members of the family, for medical or social services.
The external circumstances of life that cause material insecurity are so diverse that they can be grouped according to various characteristics, but no exhaustive list can be created. Examples include natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, mudflows, floods, etc.), armed and inter-ethnic conflicts, radiation and man-made disasters (Chernobyl, Production Association, Mayak, etc.) , epidemics, bankruptcies, etc. They are the causes of disability, loss of breadwinner, unemployment, etc., but they should not be identified with the social risk material insecurity , due to the economic system of the state .
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