The division of labor and society: the dialectic of development...

The division of labor and society: the dialectic of development

In analyzing the social division of labor, there are two non-coinciding sides: the natural-historical differentiation of the types of human activity and their division between people. In the nervous case, the division of labor is the simultaneous and parallel existence of qualitatively different forms of human activity.

Differentiation of the social division of labor

Differentiation of labor activity is a natural state of social production at all stages of its development. The division of labor in this sense is due to the state of the technical level of development, the structure and nature of technology and is a constant companion of production.

The differentiation of labor into qualitatively different types presupposes their distribution in certain proportions between the branches of production and spheres of social life. This can be judged by the distribution of those employed in the branches of the national economy. The aggregate social labor is divided into certain proportions, which consist of a different number of qualitatively determined types of human activity. In order to maintain the functioning of production and society as a whole, these proportions must be strictly defined. If society stops spending some part of the total social labor on the production of consumer products, it simply can not exist. That is why society has to divide or, more precisely, distribute labor in certain proportions between spheres and branches of social production.

It's important to know!

The specified side of the division of labor, which can be called the natural-historical differentiation of labor, expresses two points: first, the aggregate and coexistence of qualitatively dissimilar kinds of labor, and secondly, their distribution in certain proportions between the branches of production and spheres of social life . Work itself in this respect is regarded as an expedient human activity in general, and its division consists only in the presence of qualitatively different forms, distributed in certain proportions between the spheres of production. This kind of division is an eternal state of labor, it has the value of a natural, enduring law that exists in any society.

When it comes to the second side - divided between different people's work - we do not mean simply its qualitative differentiation and proportional distribution.

It's important to know!

In this case, labor is seen as a personified work, and its division means that at a certain historical stage special people are permanently assigned to special types of human activity, therefore different forms of labor become the sphere of professional activity of individual groups of workers. As a result of this separation of labor, physical and spiritual activities fall to the lot of different individuals. Thus, the main socio-economic essence of the social division of labor is its division between different people.

The separation of mental and physical labor between people arises with a small gap in time, since in human society, from the very appearance of the first early class societies, there has always been a need to develop generalizations of direct practical experience and subsequent fixation of the findings in one form or another. >

Specialization is impossible without cooperation , which at a higher level is a process of socialization of production. The high level of the latter is characterized by close interrelations between different types of production, as a result of which the exchange between them becomes more frequent and complex. Intellectual labor has the properties most favorable for the development of associated forms of activity. Thus, such large types of intellectual work as engineering, scientific, managerial work that have emerged as a consequence of specialization, subsequently acquire new forms of cooperation within professional groups.

It's important to remember!

The natural-historical differentiation of labor makes it possible to speak of the existence of two types of division of labor. The first kind - the natural division of labor - existed at an early stage of development in a primitive society and assumed a difference in the functions performed, depending on sex and age. The second type - the division of social labor - has arisen in ancient societies and exists to this day.

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