11.2. Economic basis of non-state social assistance
As already noted, the basis of social assistance is redistribution. Each institute-subject of social assistance has its own, inherent only to it the method of redistribution, which provides the economic basis of assistance.
Non-governmental institutions-subjects also carry out redistribution special for each institution in ways, but they have common features.
First, unlike power help, this is an optional, voluntary nature of redistribution.
Secondly, the redistribution of public institutions is non-state in nature, does not have the power of regulatory and legal regulation, does not use the power structure and the infrastructure of assistance, but shapes its own, public.
Third, in the economic aspect, non-state redistribution operates with the resources of individuals and public associations, rather than state (budgetary) resources.
The mechanism of redistribution of wealth, income, intangible resources, implemented by non-state institutions-actors of assistance, consists of three phases: accumulation, funding and distribution. A continuous phase change ensures the reproduction of aid relations in a resource aspect.
The accumulation of resources for the provision of assistance is made in accordance with the specifics of the institution of assistance. The accumulation of church resources is based on: donations, income from economic activities, voluntary work. Professional group associations attract funds for social assistance in the form of membership and other contributions. Charity accumulates resources by collecting donations, wills and gifts, and volunteering. In the family, the foundations of aid are formed at the expense of the economic and immaterial resources of family members, their social status, etc.
Accumulation of resources is voluntary, participation in it is not conditioned by anything and is a personal matter for everyone. In the social aspect, this is mutual assistance, solidarity of members of society, reflecting individual or group beliefs about justice.
The optional nature of the formation of the economic basis of non-state social assistance, the lack of established sources of lawable sources make it possible to assess the economic basis of non-state aid as unstable.
Resources are funded in the budgets of households, foundations of professional group associations or charitable organizations, the ecclesiastical treasury, etc.
The resources of social assistance are not only money, so the formation of non-state aid entities is funded by accumulation of both non-monetary, natural and non-material resources (efforts, intellect, initiative, social capital, access to power, etc.).>
Subjectively, the resources of non-state aid institutions are the result of the will of citizens. Therefore, the nature of resources depends on motivations, traditions, customs of voluntary redistribution of social wealth.
In economic terms, the resources of non-state institutions-aid actors depend on the development of society as a whole and on the level of economic development of a particular region (territory) where they are formed. Therefore, the resources of social assistance as the most important basis of its activities are the stronger, the wider the motivational sphere and economic resources of institutions-support entities.
The distribution phase involves the allocation of resources from the formed funds in accordance with the goals and objectives of a particular aid institution. At this stage, social assistance relationships arise.
The distribution reflects the public notion of national solidarity, when the most successful part of society voluntarily assists the least successful part, fellow citizens who need support. In each specific case, the aid subject realizes his own ideas about justice.
Non-governmental institutions-entities usually establish their own distribution rules. Thus, the institute of professional-group associations realizes distribution in accordance with the charters of organizations, local legal acts, corporate rules and traditions. The church is guided by religious dogmas, regulating the relations of help. Organized charity also has its own distribution rules, conditioned by the will of leaders, founders. Distribution in the rural community, the family is based on customs and traditions, unwritten rules. A private benefactor realizes the distribution subjectively, according to the situation.
So, the primary distribution of social wealth occurs in the market economy in terms of production factors. But in the social aspect, this is unfair and inevitably leading to the destruction of society. Therefore, the government implements the mandatory secondary distribution on social grounds, in order to ensure the stability and integrity of society. Non-state institutions-subjects of social assistance realize the optional, non-mandatory redistribution of social wealth on the basis of goodwill, customs, solidarity and for religious reasons.
Each institute-subject of social assistance has its own, a special mechanism for redistribution, this is its socio-economic basis. The mechanism should be socially acceptable, reflect the interests and needs of the institution and society as a whole.
The aggregate of institutions-actors and the mechanisms of redistribution of social wealth generated by them form a redistributive system of society, depending on the historical period, the nature of production and social relations. In this sense, in society, there are always parallel ways of redistribution - mandatory and voluntary, regulating the relationship of social assistance. This system corresponds to the level of socio-economic development of society (it is impossible to distribute more than it is produced), to dominant social and economic relations, to the notions of justice and national solidarity.
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