The emergence of capitalist labor, the free wage labor...

The emergence of capitalist labor

Approximately in the XV century. to replace the medieval society comes capitalism. All spheres of life in Europe are subject to audit. Cultural and religious values ​​are changing, political and legal systems are undergoing transformation, the economy and the sphere of production are being transformed. Handicrafts cease to be an economic foundation. It is replaced by the capitalist labor of the wage labor force, which from that moment on and up to our time becomes the main productive force of society.

Many factors of social, economic, political and even geographical nature influenced the emergence and general spread of capitalist labor. However, this was not the process of the sudden birth of something fundamentally new. In the causes of the emergence of capitalist labor, tendencies in the transformation of social strata, production principles, spiritual and moral values ​​are guessed in the same way that the working environment mediated multiple social transformations. Without changing the labor sphere, it would be impossible to form capitalism. For this reason, representatives of classical sociology, considering the processes of the emergence of capitalism, paid special attention to changes in the labor sphere.

Free wage labor and free capital

The late Middle Ages are characterized by the emergence of a stable surplus in both agriculture and crafts. This allowed the most successful landowners and traders to concentrate sufficient capital to use it in the development of entrepreneurship. K. Marx defined this process as "the initial accumulation of capital." However, in order for this capital to work and make a profit, it was necessary that the ts would ensure its reproduction, i.e. free wage labor.

The view of the classic.

For the emergence of capitalist production, according to K. Marx, it was necessary to fulfill the following condition: "... two very different types of goods owners must meet with each other and make contact - on the one hand, the owner of money, the means of production and vital means, which is required to purchase someone else's labor force to further increase the amount of value assigned to them: on the other hand, free workers, sellers of their own labor and, consequently, labor sellers "

In a free wage-earning labor K. Marx saw, first of all, the peasants expelled from their lands, as happened in England in the last third of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. The peasants were suddenly and forcibly deprived of all the guarantees of existence provided by the old feudal institutions, they expropriated the object and means of labor, and they were thrown on the market of piles "in the form of outlawed proletarians" .

Thus, all that was necessary for the emergence of a capitalist economy, namely free capital and "free" hired labor, was formed at the turn of the XV-XVI centuries. The further interaction of capital and wage labor was determined by the maintenance of the capitalist social order, where each side, capital and wage labor, appeared as organically opposing, but at the same time, dependent entities. Capitalist production, designed to meet the needs of society, needed capital, made in the means of production, as well as in the hired labor force, which drives the latter into motion and creates value.

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