The essence of personality - Fundamentals of Sociology and Political Science

The essence of personality

Personality is the unity of the biogenic, psychogenic and sociogenic properties that determine its behavioral, role-playing activity at the level of the unity of social being and social consciousness, refracted in personality as a totality of social relations. In other words, a person is a social phenomenon. But, pointing to the essence of man as a totality of social relations, it should be noted, as IS Kon does, that the "essence of man" and specific identity - not the same thing. Can a person, without making a mistake against the truth, call himself the "aggregate of all social relations" when the sphere of activity of any particular individual obviously includes only a small part of this relationship?

Indeed, a person interacting with society deals with the whole range of relations that people enter into in the process of their life activity, forming various social structures: communities, groups, parties, classes, nations, peoples, social institutions, statuses, roles, activities, behavior, communication, communication, in short, everything that characterizes the social structure of society. But even this does not exhaust everything that a person can contact during his life, because social processes are extremely dynamic. Changes, transformations, movements, campaigns, catastrophes, conflicts, struggles, development, progress and regress, stagnation and jumps, etc. - all this expands the sphere of human interaction with society. In order to develop optimally, a person must necessarily be included in such spheres as labor, politics, culture and spiritual life, education and science, religion, family and marriage relations, information relations, a system of group interests, a system of management relations. Naturally, all this diversity, all this set of social relations is reflected in the essence of man. And it is in essence, and not in the most concrete person, in personality, because it reflects only what belongs to her personally, colored by the personal the meaning of its being.

According to IS Kon, in the study of personality, first of all distinguish intra-individual (internal) and interindividual (interpersonal) approaches. In the first case, the individual and his features are at the center of attention. In the light of this approach, in order to understand, for example, a phenomenon such as friendship, it is necessary first of all to study the personal properties of the subject that affect his ability to friendship: his tolerance, the degree of sensitivity to the experiences of the other, irritability and m. The closer the subject's qualities to some ideal model, the more likely that the subject is able to establish friendly relations with another person. On the contrary, from the standpoint of interpersonal approach, the researcher studies not the person's potential for friendship, but friendship as an attitude: compatibility of two friends reacting to each other in certain situations, etc. In other words, in the first case the features, attitudes, properties of the personality are explored, in the second - the patterns of interaction. These approaches imply each other: personality traits affect the interaction of individuals and, in turn, are formed and mutated in this process. Essentially, it is on the basis of the dialectical unity of these two approaches that the entire social life of people is formed as the interaction of the individual with society and society with the individual, but depending on the objectives of the research, one or the other approach prevails. In particular, psychology and psychiatry often use the intra-individual approach, social psychology and sociology - interpersonal.

Western studies of problems of human behavior as a whole are more oriented toward psychological (using psychiatry data, for example, Freud's theory of personality), rather than a sociological approach. Personality (personality ) here primarily means characteristic features of the behavior of an individual. In United States sociology, great importance is traditionally attached to the interaction of the individual with society and society with the individual, and the definition of a person in sociological science is invariably associated with her social connections. Personality here appears as the integrity of the social properties of man, the product of social development and the inclusion of the individual in the system of social relations through active objective activity and communication. The individual becomes a person in the process of mastering social functions and developing self-consciousness. Aspiration to merge with social community (to be identified with it ) and at the same time to separate from it, to manifest a creative individuality makes a person both an object and a subject of social relations, social development.

The formation of the personality is carried out in the processes of socialization and directed education, the development of the individual social norms and functions (social roles) by mastering the diverse types and forms of activity. In addition to general social, personality acquires features conditioned by the specificity of vital activity of special social communities, of which individuals are members. On the one hand, the development of the features inherent in these diverse communities, as well as the social roles performed by individuals in group and collective activities, is expressed in socially-typical manifestations of behavior and consciousness, and on the other - gives the individual a unique individuality, since these socially conditioned qualities are structured in a stable integrity based on the psychophysical properties of the subject. Thus, the personality is integrated with the individuality.

Apparently, this does not contradict the fact that sociological study identifies in the personality just the socio-typical as the integrity of character and moral qualities necessary for the performance of public functions, knowledge and skills, holistic orientations and social attitudes, the dominant motives of activity. As a subject of social relations for an individual, an active activity that transforms reality is characteristic, which becomes possible and productive due to the mastery of culture inherited from previous generations.

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