The Gender Division Of Labour Sociology Essay

Functionalists put forward a structuralist view of the family and within that context, how they understand conjugal assignments. Parson thought the gender department of labour was natural and attractive. He also suggested that men and women had biologically driven personality types. Parson recommended that the functions carried out by women were not second-rate, just different. They complimented the role carried out by men. He presumed that girls were more expressive then men and children were best socialised when they live in a warm, caring environment. The expressive female was also necessary to stabilise the adult men personality by interacting with his mental and sexual needs. As a result, the family benefits when women stay at home. Also, men are better at providing for his or her family because they have got instrumental personalities. He also explained that in the commercial culture, isolated nuclear young families have become more prominent. These families have grown to be isolated using their extended family members because of commitments such as work needs. The conjugal couple therefore looked to the other person to give their needs.

In modern times, Parsons' view has been supported by lots of groups, including New Right Conservation. They thought traditional, segregated conjugal tasks were best for the family and wider population. However, to their concern, they imagine they are threatened by family variety and the changing functions and goals of women, producing a number of interpersonal problems such as underachievement and delinquency. Therefore, recommending that they start to see the family as a structure that influences the development and attitudes of its members.

Looking at Young and Willmott's examination of the symmetrical family, they claim that families today are more similar than before and have shifted from segregated conjugal roles. This movement was through the result of a 'march of progress'. There are several known reasons for this. The first is that women are in paid occupation, giving them financial freedom and resulting in greater showing of electricity and status within the family. Unlike before, there are also changing objectives of husbands and family life. Also, there's a change in the size of families today, that are smaller. This may be due to lifestyle changes, contraception and abortion. With the increased loss of the prolonged family this meant that the conjugal couple depended on one another practically and psychologically, both adding to the duties within the house and sharing decisions. Because of this, marriage today is now an equal collaboration.

Gershuny helps the view of Young and Willmott, that there is a larger equality. The foundation of his work over the past three ages is by using time use diaries. Gershuny sustains that 'the department of labour remains unfair, not due to work itself, but due to its marriage to longer-term ability structures inside a contemporary society'. (The Guardian, 2008). Although there is some progress towards greater sharing, it is very slow. He suggested that it may take a generation for men to make the same contribution, explaining this as 'lagged version'.

Post Modernists claim that the globe is no longer predictable. Culture has got into a postmodern stage where there is no prominent family type and where individuals have the chance to create family human relationships that tend to be more well suited for them. Individuals are much more diverse today. In today's culture, home life is much better than it used to be. There's also an increased variety of appliances in the home, making home life more attractive and even more men are prepared to stay at home and help with home duties and childcare. This is very much like Young and Willmott's view on changing gender identities, talking about men as 'New Men', assisting to emphasis a change in behaviour. Also, some women are quite happy with residing at home, taking on parenting and housework responsibilities.

In short, Young and Willmott's while others have argued that while conjugal functions are not completely identical they have become more similar. However, Feminists have criticised Parsons' image of population that too much emphasis is laid after how communal control within family members can reduce the potential for underachievement and delinquency. Also, there is absolutely no proof the biologically expressive woman. Critics of Young and Willmott suggest there is insufficient sociological facts to evidently support their debate. Most evidence suggests substantial inequality, especially where women are in paid job.

Feminists claim that the gender division of labour is culturally created and that there surely is insufficient data that conjugal tasks have become more distributed. They portray that the section of labour works to the good thing about men, leaving ladies in a posture of inferiority in both power and work. Feminists believe the family is patriarchal because women must do housework without pay, which exploits and oppresses women because they are socialised to be dependent on men. Regarding to Ann Oakley's (1974) research, women still felt that housework and childcare was their responsibility, even when they may be in paid occupation they still take on the duty of childcare and housework, this is recognized as the 'triple shift'. This also contradicts the argument of Young and Willmott that as more women take paid work outside of the house men increasingly promote the housework and childcare. In addition they disagree with the new rights view of different roles and they disagree with the 'march of improvement' view, stating that society hasn't changed which is still unequal.

Feminists also reject the theory that there is 'one best' family type, they adopt freedom and variety. They also start to see the traditional nuclear family as the main reason for women's oppression, recommending that family ideology makes problems such as home violence worse, as women consider they must 'stand by their man' regardless of what the results is. These women may blame themselves to be bad wives and discover themselves as deserving to be punished.

Feminists reject Parsons' view that ladies were biologically decided and believe they are really socially built. They blame the advertising for this structure of women, often portraying them as housewives, cleaners, home servants offering comfort and support for men and presenting them as a man's making love object to have a tendency to his intimate needs, suggesting that these tasks are natural and normal. That is therefore viewed as an example of patriarchal ideology. Marxist feminists think that female employees are taken good thing about at an increased level than guys as they are regarded as a source of unpaid domestic labour, benefiting capitalism.

Interactionism criticise both functionalists and feminists because both presume that social composition determines gender assignments. Functionalists believe that family matches the needs of the average person and the family and Feminists believe that family sustains patriarchy. Interactionism has a far more micro theory concentrating on human relationships between individuals and benefits rather than roles, including things such as social class, cultural, lesbian and gay differences.

In short, there is certainly little evidence of sharing of electric power and the social dominance of men over women persists. Critics say that women have 'covered powers' controlling the house and have sexual power. In addition they say that feminism has led to increased opportunities for ladies in education and the work environment and cultural change in feminine ambitions.

Based on the above arguments and proof, there remains significant disagreement within Sociology above the dispute of conjugal jobs. While Functionalists believe that roles are progressively equal in modern society, Feminists maintain that there surely is very little empirical evidence to support this. For these people, there remains considerable inequality. However, Interactionists and Post Modernists are critical of both solutions for a presumptuous view of conjugal functions and for ignoring the diversity of family and household structures and benefits.

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