The Modern (Postmodern) Stage - The History of Sociology

Modern (postmodern) stage

In the XIX century. The center of development of world sociology was Western Europe - France, England, Germany. At the beginning of the XX century. he moved to the US, and at the beginning of the XXI century. the center as such disappeared altogether. Now the points of growth of sociology are dispersed throughout the world - the characteristic trend of the so-called postmodern period .

The place and role of sociology has changed. She began to occupy an intermediate position between humanitarian research and exact science, and her representatives became academic scientists and public figures in one person. The interaction of sociology and society unfolds in four spheres: professional, critical, political and public.

According to G. Terborn, the territory of modern sociology has undergone serious changes. The leading topics are: the problem of identity, emotional life; life orientations, family sphere and interpersonal relations; work, organizations and their functioning, labor markets; culture and ideology; regional communities and habitat, the problem of social ecology; health and medicine; problems of social inequality; policy, state and social movements, social control and law; sociological theories and social cognition, methodology and research techniques.

At the present time, a significant part of the sociological problem is related in one way or another with globalism , which as a theoretical education exists mainly in two variants - as a fully-defined theory of modernity, the theory of global society, and as a methodological basis for the sociological research. The essence of modern sociology, unlike the classical one, is that it does not come from the general laws of the development of society, but from the transboundary interconnection of phenomena, events and people, which is expressed in the notion of a networked society.

Another feature - world sociology has become polycentric and actively gets rid of eurocentrism. The creative potential and international recognition of Australian, African, Indian, Chinese and Brazilian sociology is growing. Aboriginal sociologists, having received in the end of XIX and first half of XX century. education abroad, on their return home not only gave young people the theory and empirics of Western sociology, but also developed original conceptions of society, forming a new, non-traditional (alternative) image of the science of the 21st century. The development of an original national sociology has acquired the name indigenization.

Scientists from post-communist countries (Russia, Poland, Croatia, Bulgaria) also actively participate in the international sociological discourse. To characterize the scientific thought of Western countries, the concept of "metropolitan science" is used, and non-Western is used postcolonial and peripheral.

Latin American sociology evolved strong influence of the protest movement, struggling against colonialism, social injustice, racial oppression, and Westernization. As a consequence, it manifested, on the one hand, a pronounced attraction to left-wing ideas - social democratic and Marxist, on the other - orientation to the theory of progress, social change, modernization. In Latin America, the national school of sociologists takes a strong stand, which advocates the preservation of an original culture and regional social experience, be it the peasant movement in Brazil, social experiments with the Guarani Indians in Paraguay, the practice of community settlements in Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala.

Special mention should be made of the achievements of Brazil. In 2008, the President of the country issued a decree according to which sociology (social sciences) as a compulsory subject should be studied in all secondary schools in the country (there are 30,000) in throughout all the years of study. Currently, more than 20 journals on sociology are published in Brazil. With the efforts of E. Cardoso, the dependence theory was formed, according to which international loans imposed on developing countries, serve not as a means of saving the economy, but as an instrument for enslaving.

Research interests of Brazilian sociologists in the period from the 1960s to the 2000s. have shifted from a macrostructural analysis of society to the study of specific social movements (trade unionists, environmentalists, blacks, feminists, gays, etc.). At the micro level, there is also a shift away from objectivity to subjectivity-to the socio-psychological study of a single actor and a hundred inner worlds (social identity, figurative discourse, representation, stylization, socialization). At the same time, it should be noted that research interest in various aspects of globalization has not recently decreased.

Sociology in Southeast Asia is actively developing . For example, in Media , it has acquired the status of one of the leading disciplines among the social sciences, its achievements are recognized by economists, politicians, government officials. The state finances research projects in the field of health, family and demographic policy, urbanization and agrarian sociology, industrialization and poverty alleviation, and social and economic planning. Indian sociologists are actively studying the processes of urbanization of the country, the destruction of the caste system and its displacement by the class system, the unconventional economic structure, the influence of magical cults and polytheism, the structure of the village community, the peculiarities of the non-capitalist development path in the conditions of globalization, the nature of urban inequality, the problem of poverty.

Sociology in China , emerged as a result of borrowing foreign sociological theories in the early XX century. and having been persecuted in the era of the cult of personality of Mao Tse-tung, is now an original way and achieves significant success. In the 1980-1990-ies. the Chinese government allocated a lot of money to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences to form an extensive network of provincial academic centers that conducted large-scale studies using 10,000 samples. Today, Chinese sociology has a pronounced applied nature, helping to pursue state policy, to solve social contradictions. At the beginning of the XXI century. in the country there were more than 100 sociological institutes, faculties and departments, where more than 6000 professional specialists worked. In 2008, Chinese universities and academic institutions offered 74 sociological programs for a few thousand students for a bachelor's degree, 87 for a master's degree and 16 for a doctor of science. Today, Chinese sociologists are engaged in research in such areas as theory and methodology, the history of sociology, social stratification and mobility, the middle class, the peasantry and the working class, the sociology of communities and agrarian sociology, the sociology of the city, the sociology of youth, the sociology of gender, social movements and collective action , civil society, social work and social policy, family and marriage, social ecology, social change and social reconstruction, comparative studies of the Chinese community tva, multiculturalism, globalization, modernization and Confucianism, etc.

In general, the sociologists of developing countries consider the hegemony of liberal ideology an obstacle to the development of world sociology, a relic of the colonial era. According to the Malaysian sociologist Saed Hussein Alatas, the manifestation of the hegemony of the West over the rest of the world is academic imperialism and academic dependence. The thematic repertoire, developed by Western sociology with a marked interest in interracial relations, ethnic minorities, women, gays and lesbians, and disabled people, is broadcast to non-Western societies, and native sociologists are forced either explicitly or implicitly, consciously or unconsciously, to adjust their society's description, Western, under standard models & quot ;. The rejection of Westernization products forces non-Western sociologists to reconsider classical theory and methodology, to search for new methods of empirical research, to fill classical concepts with new content, even modern ones such as globalization and modernization, applying to local conditions and national color. From time immemorial, indigenous culture was formed on the basis of the following principles: the individual as a part of nature; recognition of the wisdom of the older generation, respect for spiritual traditions and values; the interweaving of the virtual with the real, the sweat and the next, the physical and the non-physical in the construction of social reality; approach to respondents as experts in everyday life. The process of indigenization, which is characteristic for the last few years, is understood as the return to the roots, to its roots, is understood as an appeal to primordial principles, the transformation of society in accordance with the peculiarities of local culture and at the same time - as a counteraction to Westernization, Western standards of sociological thinking.

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