The negative consequences of urbanization - Sociology

The negative consequences of urbanization

The emergence of cities is a giant step in the development of mankind, but urbanization also has negative consequences. The negative consequences caused by finding a long time in a big city, include: lack of clean air and light, detachment from nature, increased dustiness, noise, the spread of cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, nervous diseases, tuberculosis . Noise causes significant disturbance of mental balance in humans. The scientists found that children whose homes were noisy found a lower school performance at school. In addition, it is noted that people exposed to significant noise are less likely to help others and are more quickly enraged. The pollution of the environment caused by cars, industry or smoking also has a strong impact on the person's perception and ability to learn, increasing his mental tension and irritability.

Increased background of air pollution, chlorinated water, high noise background, concentration of sound and light stimuli, intense magnetic fields, saturation with energy-intensive equipment, increased pace of life, high risk in the streets, concentration of large masses of people, including criminals, homeless people and marginal groups , create a unique bouquet of risk factors. The urban population suffers from a stomach ulcer, which is directly related to the nervous rhythm of life. Despite the comfort of housing and a higher level of medical care, in cities, many people suffer from age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular and oncological diseases.

In the city, not only morals, but also the nature of disease. Once upon a time, traumas and injuries took the first place, after centuries, among the reasons leading people to the next world, epidemics and infections . Over time, thanks to science, man has become relatively easy to cope with infections. In many respects this was facilitated by the spread of urban civilization, which is characterized by a higher level of sanitary and hygienic and medical services to the population. Having rid the person of diseases associated with heavy physical labor, modern civilization awarded him the whole "bouquet" man-caused ailments. One of them is computer hand diseases, otherwise referred to as tunnel syndrome. With prolonged daily work on the computer, dystrophic changes in the tissues of the hand occur. Muscles become weak, inelastic, quickly become tired at a load.

Among the most important problems is the provision of water to citizens and industrial enterprises and the disposal of sewage. Consideration of waste and recycling of human waste are considered serious problems.

In large cities, a special microclimate is formed. Residential buildings reduce the wind speed, as a result of stagnant air, toxic pollutants concentrate. Due to combustion of automobile fuel, heating of city buildings, emissions of infrastructure objects, air temperature in megacities exceeds the average temperature of this area. At one time, Thomas Jefferson called the city "a fetid place for morality, health and freedom", where epidemics mow down the urban population. Due to the high concentration of people, industrial enterprises and transport on a limited area of ​​the city appear to be the most important consumers of all types of natural resources - territorial, energy, food, and the most important sources of environmental pollution. All cities world annually emit up to 3 billion tons of solid waste into the environment, more than 500 cubic meters. m of industrial and domestic sewage, about 1 billion tons of aerosols. The polluting and thermal effects of agglomerations can be traced at a distance of 50 km.

Large cities are the largest consumers of food , and, as a rule, the surrounding rural area is not able to supply it. The growth of the urban area leads to the reduction of valuable agricultural land, which in developing countries further exacerbates the food situation. Urbanization changes the terrain, geological conditions, hydrological regime, the soil of suburban areas, affects their climate. For the needs of recreation, suburban forests, meadows and ponds are transformed, direct and indirect destruction of primary natural complexes occurs, and the plant and animal world is depleted.

The city creates a mass of social problems: overpopulation, poverty, crime, housing problem. Three billion people live in large cities, and every third citizen has normal housing. Since most people are directed to cities, unemployment is increasing, overpopulation is increasing, the housing problem is aggravating, crime is growing, socio-political order is becoming unstable. The surplus of the rural population is becoming an overabundance of the urban population. There are marginal occupations: street shops, prostitution, street theft, street artisans, etc. The level of crime in cities where social and administrative control over citizens is more difficult to implement than in rural areas is higher. Anonymous urban environment often generates indifference, alienation and indifference of residents to events around them.

Urbanization, which has now reached a worldwide scale, has spawned many related processes: suburbanization, urbanization, gentrification, etc.

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