The role of advertising in the presentation of political...

The role of advertising in the presentation of political forces

In the most intense period of the struggle of the Klyuyans with the Cistercians, the first to ridicule the second, they let out a rumor that they do not have underpants.

Umberto Eco. The name of the rose

The issue with the allocation of proper advertising in the communication flow is not as simple as it seems. The problem is what exactly is considered a text. It is clear that the speech of the leader of a political party (or faction leader) in the State Duma is not only the content of his speech: his manner of speaking, appearance and behavior can create such an image that he can not be retouched by any special advertising means. When a contender for the post of head of state comes up with populist slogans to please the electorate, his critics immediately have analogies with advertising. Both in advertising TV spots, and in letters that are sent out to voters before the elections, those goals that are considered basic are achieved. For example, in the words of the researcher of political advertising OA Feofanova, in these cases the following is achieved: it is necessary that the consumer of information has a feeling expressed by the ideas "I know him", "He is good", "He suits."

If we talk about political advertising, here it is specific the product itself - the program and personality characteristics of a person claiming power; specifically the action which is required from the consumer - to issue a mandate for power and at least to give credence to the political steps of a person of power; but many efforts "on packaging and public presentations are very similar. I would like to emphasize once again that as a result of these efforts a favorable image is created, though personalized, but the image of the sociopolitical action that exists in the competitive field. The minimum, threshold condition for creating an image is the existence of a program. Its essential characteristics, which are indispensable attributes for public presentation, campaigning for it, building on its basis numerous already actually advertising texts, is that the program should differ from alternative programs: either a set of sociopolitical problems requiring solutions or their priorities; or have signs of the candidate differing from other candidates, be different from other programs.

This part of the politician's work - in a situation where he only agitates for his program - for all its importance remains only a skeleton for those specific texts in the form of which it will be represented before the public. These can be oral speeches, newspaper texts, journalistic interviews, TV debates with rivals, specific advertising messages. This is all work with the word, lying in the sphere if not of art, then of very specific kinds of activity.

Political advertising is practically the only opportunity for a candidate to portray himself as he wants, to offer the audience his own agenda, to highlight issues that are profitable from the point of view of the candidate, conclusions and interpretations of facts. After all, the rest of the information about the candidate is generated by the efforts of the intermediaries, who place, edit, filter this information for placement in the QMS. Therefore, obviously, the first African American president, Barack Obama, did not take risks, and three days before the election, while still a contender, he bought a half-hour time for prime-time advertising on seven major TV channels.

The types of communication of a politician are divided into forms where the participation of "other" maximum, and where minimal; where a monologue is possible, and where a dialogue is possible. And it's all different hypostases, and all the different texts created by different laws. The latter circumstance explains the objective necessity of the appearance of political advisers in the state politician: many of the listed activities require special training and experience. Following the researchers, we note that increasing the role of QMS in the course of the election campaigns determined the work with them in accordance with the nature and characteristics of each of the means. To date, the payment of consultants and other professionals of the pre-election state is the most expensive item of expenditure - after the cost of television advertising. It accounts for up to 20% of the election campaign budget.

There are practical instructions, methodological guidelines for compiling texts for the politician. Both the text and the manner of the leader's behavior should be as focused as possible on the listeners (readers, viewers). Recommendations of politics look like an excerpt from the Bible: if you want to be a successful candidate, you must be honest, frank, a person of goodwill, intelligent, competent, a person who loves society and individuals, dynamic, self-confident, modest. Honesty is today among the most quoted qualities of a politician, even ahead of his skills and qualities of a leader and the program with which he goes to the polls. This is indicated by public opinion polls in the US: 33% of respondents indicated honesty as the most preferable characteristic of the applicant, 16% said that for them the most important thing was that he cared about people, 15% preferred leadership qualities, 13% - vision .

Political communication as a form of communication includes two entities that are mutually interested in contact. The content of this contact is political issues, variants of sociopolitical development of society. It includes both rational and emotional characteristics; The compositional ratio of the latter depends on the particular genre. Similarly, the audience develops attitudes toward different, sometimes mutually exclusive, forms of political leadership behavior.

Let's give a concrete example. At one of the pre-election rallies, the leader of the Solidarity L. Valenza suddenly refused the microphone. Walesa asked if there was any screwdriver. A screwdriver was found. With the words all I have to do in Poland Valensa in front of the public eliminated the breakdown. Then, in the depths of the hall, a man arose and asked Valensa: "Do you really think that an electrician can run the state?" An immediate response followed: "Someone must give light to our country!" The next day, at the same rally, the same scene was played with no less brilliance. But let's imagine that this sketch hit "on the tooth critics. After all, tracking of factual errors and various kinds of absurdities is one of the tasks of the political leader's campaign headquarters. This would be a typical example of what "from a genius to a ridiculous one step". By the way, in the recommendations for the leader who carries out his public activities, the method of updating the text of the speech is specified, for those cases, if the audience is "enthusiasts" who came to the show not for the first time. Duplication of a successful mise-en-scene by Valen is the most eloquent example of an manipulative treatment of an audience.

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