The Social Factual Norms By Durkheim Sociology Essay

Over the past years the headlines of papers have read everything from 'Neighbour says Nia 'chucked' on brand' (NZHerald: 2008) to just this month ''very violent' brain personal injury wiped out baby' (NZHerald: 2011). In New Zealand typically one child is killed every 5 weeks scheduled to Child Misuse. This figure shouldn't come as a wonder; as over the past decade stories of fatal child abuse circumstances have been frequently protected in the news (Child issues: 2011).

Norms are a 'public simple fact' (Durkheim: 1982). They are what from the famous French sociologist Emile Durkheim. He continued to explain that we are given birth to into a pre-existing order, with rules and norms which may have recently been premade and establish. And this if you want to stay in this society we live born into, we must learn to abide by these 'pre-determined sanctions' (Durkheim: 1982/1895, p56-57). These already place norms include those from the problem of child maltreatment. We need not think when reading horrendous articles in the newspapers of children being put in clothes dryers and greatly beaten. We already know that it is morally wrong. Although in several cultures across the world different kinds of 'mistreatment' may be seen as a form of, what they see as normal 'punishment'. These 'cultural facts' still exist around us. These were there before we were born and can still remain weather we choose to agree with the fact or disagree with them; almost all of which have repercussions if you do chose to 'stray' from them.

This brings us Sharyn Roach Anleu's 5 key questions adjoining norms; 1) whose norms?, regarding child maltreatment it is our world/country of New Zealand's norms. The norm is that it is not to misuse children, or anyone. It is seen as a bad thing so when a country I am certain that there will not be many people who would say that it's ok to mistreatment. 2) How do some norms become public or legal? Harming a child is wrong and when experiencing about these inhumane functions of violence against children we may be urged to do something positive about it, but if we have been being real with ourselves, on our own; without economic or political power it would be difficult to place forth and solidify our beliefs into laws and regulations. Although with this issue there are many people with electric power who show the beliefs of the society. Such as for example Green MP Sue Bradford's; the anti smacking legislation was handed in 2007(NZ Herald: 2007). Since she possessed political vitality, with the support of the community the charge was passed. 3 years have handed down and a fresh regulation will be approved that will dsicover those people who convert a blind vision to child maltreatment prosecuted (DominionPost: 2011). This is a positive thing as many cases of child misuse pull on for calendar months as the individuals involved; who may have very well saved the Childs life have gone to worried or not bothered to article the abuse happening. What makes some norms more important than others? Does indeed visibility make a difference? And may there be deviance without breaking communal norms?

As said in the e book straying from these sociable norms can result in deviance over a period of time. The example given is that of a tender drug user over time contributes to hard medication use. This process can be put into framework with child misuse. Child misuse may be as apparent as bruises or as simple as a mother or father neglecting their child. There can never be a good reason for child misuse to occur; but there is grounds behind it. The straying could be the perpetrator; a grown-up - being truly a parent, relative or friend exhibiting their anger, anticipated to various causes (e. g. stress in the home, work etc) through minimal outburst such as yelling at the child or accidentally slapping them as time passes letting it get out of control and so that it is a regular occurrence of more serious abuse.

Interactionist theory of deviance argues that deviant behavior is learned. As is other behaviours. In the same way deviance is socially built; Child abuse is recognized as sociological simple fact as it isn't an innate behavioral structure for humans to follow. It's mostly a learned tendencies usually from relationships with the parents of the abusers. Sociology is the study of society, or to be more exact it is about group connections within society. We all have been part of communities such as college, cultural ethnic communities. One of the first groups that we interact with has been our families. That's where we learn much of what affects us as men and women, and if maltreatment is what's learned as a kid, it is most likely to be performed when the abused children increase up. The oxford dictionary of Sociology defines Child misuse as discussing

The maltreatment or damage of a child by an adult or parents. Such maltreatment can be physical, mental, intimate, or a mixture of all three. It might be perpetrated by one person or by several, within a family or outside it, and in public areas or in private. (Oxford: 2011)

Over the years what might have been seen as an take action of firm abuse is now; being learned as a form of deviance. Inside the chapter Straying: Deviance in Being Sociological, Michael Lloyd makes it clear that norms are a key feature when defining Deviance.

'The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant action is behavior that individuals so label' (Becker, 1963, p9). Behaviors that are believed deviant are highly biased. Crime/deviance is described by those in ability. In context in the Kahui child abuse case where the daddy of the twins was wrongly accused for a few months over the getting rid of of his twin babies. A stigma was developed which led visitors to think terribly of him. And for that reason label it seemed to the public that he was the abuser and that he had done it. Rather than him fighting for his right, because more and more people were already against him for this reason label, there was nothing he could do about any of it as a majority of people wouldn't normally consider him. Until it was found that it was actually the baby's mother who was the abuser then was this stigma raised, and individuals view towards him transformed. The damage could have still been there today and will have a while for him to socially construct himself again. Another form of cultural construction can be seen in Georges Canguilhem's evaluation of normality.

Ian Hackings looping result links on to the labelling theory as mentioned in his example 'person A does not want to be person H. ' if others think of any person as someone they aren't(false accusation, stereotyping) See your face changes their behaviours because they're aware of what others are saying about them. Including the deviant; the person doing the child maltreatment. Or the abuser that becomes from the child that is abused, may due to stereotype of there being prior mistreatment in their household they may or may well not want to surpass that labelling. But because of what others are saying they will get cared for like the deviant if they enjoy it or not building a looping result. Harold Garfinkel's documentary of identification method uncovered that the jury he was learning the jurors developed the results then loaded in the reasons. These theories show that deviants are socially made through social relationships; the way people are cured influence how they react. And without deviance 'there would be no sociable change' (Lloyd: 2007)

The author's main goal to present the complexity of the relationship between straying and how over time can lead to deviance was backed by like the viewpoints, theories and ideas of different people. Lloyd did not make many assumptions aside from let's assume that the reader recognized this is of 'straying'; declaring that it 'is a term found in everyday conversation so we can do with out a definition'(Lloyd, 2007, p317-318). Through this wording Michael Lloyd could be seen as being biased towards deviance being truly a 'social simple fact' in modern culture. He addresses the five questions encompassing norms which Sharyn Roach Anleu summarised following Emile Durkheim's theory of norms being truly a 'social simple fact'. These questions verify that deviance can be an portion of sociology that is 'full of issue and competing ideas' (Lloyd, 2007, p319). By including this and a commentator Colin Sumner's claim that, 'the field come to a useless -end by the late 1970's' Lloyd has saved himself from being completely biased by taking into account different viewpoints of the topic. The sociological theories; Becker's labelling theory, Ian Hackings looping result theory of real human kind Harold Garfinkel's recognition of the 'documentary method of interpretation and ideas from this chapter help understand and describe what is occurring in the serious social problem of child mistreatment in New Zealand.

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