The theoretical perspectives in sociology

Sociology is the study of society and human action. Webster's Dictionary defines a point of view as a "view of things in their true romantic relationship or importance". Therefore, the sociological perspective provides viewpoints used to check out human behaviors and relationships as they relate with individuals and organizations within a world. The sociological point of view stresses that to comprehend humans, not what is inside of them, but instead the exterior factors influencing them, should be viewed. There are many theoretical perspectives in sociology that are used to understand communal relationships and habits. The three theoretical perspectives reviewed here are symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and turmoil theory.

Symbolic interactionism is a microsociological theoretical way that examines small-scale patterns of social interaction. Interactionists focus on how humans use symbols (signs or symptoms, gestures, terms) to build up views of the world, others, and themselves, as well as the value of these icons in social interaction and communication. Interactionists also assume that humans use these icons to explain the self, by assessing themselves to others and by constantly changing their view of themselves. Interactionists see certainty to be negotiated predicated on shared contracts and perceptions about situations and therefore the truth is not stagnant but instead liquid, ever changing. Also, symbolic interactionists make an effort to understand how a person feels to be able to comprehend why they action the way they do.

For example, many female babies are wiped out in India. To understand why they are killed, Interactionists check out why is people destroy them. Raising a girl is very costly in India. The meaning that Indians attach to the birth of your baby woman is that of an encumbrance to the family. However, traditional western cultures tend to think of every child as a surprise and a blessing, no matter what gender. A health care provider interviewed for a Television set documentary said that she will not report families that destroy their infant women, because it is a generally accepted societal practice. A whole lot of folks are poor and few are able the price associated with nurturing a girl. When getting married, the groom's family is paid a dowry for taking over the responsibility of the bride. Getting back to the doctor, contrasting her own conduct compared to that of others, she does not find anything wrong with not reporting those murders since others do not survey them either. By her own entrance, however, if others were to start reporting the murders of baby girls, she would then modify her own conduct accordingly and also begin to survey the killings. The reaction to the killings depends on this is and significance that is attached to that death, and right now the physician perceives it as insignificant rather than worth confirming.

Functional experts (or functionalists) view world as a whole, a sophisticated system of included, interrelated parts that interact to keep culture balanced. Each part of population has a certain function that it has to match in order to meet the needs of the culture where it prevails, thus functionalists stress order and stableness. If a part of society is dysfunction - so this means it generally does not fulfill it's role, the tranquility is interrupted and the machine is weakened. Through natural and gradual change, equilibrium needs to be restored. To understand how modern culture works functionalists verify how society performs, what needs must be fulfilled and how they can be satisfied. They also analyze what functions the various parts of modern culture fulfill, and the particular connections between those parts are.

Take, for example, the female fighter pilot Lt. Col. Martha McSally, who fought for ladies stationed in Arabic countries never to have to wear the traditional head covering (abaya) and the changing functions of ladies in the military. Female and male service associates got certain functions. Women often performed as nurses or as clerks whereas men filled up combat positions. Both genders had roles assigned and the system worked alongside one another in tranquility until women were permitted to serve in positions that were in the past meant for male service users only. By using a continuous and natural process the roles of men and women in the navy will have to be redefined until previous balance is restored.

Another example would be Lt. Gov. Jane Swift of Massachusetts, who was pregnant when she joined office, and the functions of an mom and a politician. As being a mother society expects her to care for her children and be there when her children need her. However, in her work as politician, she is expected to totally immerse herself in Talk about politics. The functions of mothers and politicians are clearly defined, but, she is blurring the restrictions between your two functions and culture (the system) has not yet fine-tuned to the changes associated with mothers of young children in politics. As more and more moms with dependant children are stepping into politics, the system will have to adjust to their special needs, functions should be redefined for balance to be restored.

Like functional analysis, conflict theory focuses on large-scale habits of population. However, whereas functionalists believe that society is composed of groups that interact, conflict theorists believe those groupings are in constant disagreement with one another over limited resources. Issue theorists also assume that societies are constantly changing which some groups have more power then others and this norms and worth of a culture are made by people that have power to keep those without ability "down". Discord theorists think that the best way to change society is to change its structure rather than the individuals within that modern culture.

Going back to Lt. Gov. Jane Swift, electric power is seen as a result of her communal position rather than consequently of her persona. Like a politician she contains certain forces that conflict with those of non-politicians. For example, she excused her use of the state helicopter with her position as an important politics amount. Non-politicians disagree with her to use the helicopter, as they cannot do that.

In India women and men are in a regular battle for scarce resources. In the case of the infanticides the resources are power as well as money. The only solution compared to that issue would be for world to improve its structure by, for example, taking away dowries as a condition of marriage or removing the necessity for expensive ceremonies for daughters. Since those with vitality and money see no need to change the existing structure, the only way the change would ever happens is if poor Indians stood up and protested current routines.

The same holds true for the military services. The problems that arose for Lt. Col. McSally while stationed in the centre East originated from inequality in the treatment of male and female service users. As a female she was necessary to wear an abaya when departing the base. This caused an issue since the abaya protected her from head to toe and therefore her social location, her list as Lieutenant Colonel, was no more obvious to others. Her powers were reduced while male service participants, even those of lower list, did not have to remove or hide the signals of their interpersonal location within the military society, resulting in a struggle for ability.

To summarize the three major theoretical perspectives defined above it can, generally in most general conditions, be said that structural functionalists would give attention to what's common practice in a certain culture and would also evaluate the function of symbols used to have interaction and communicate for the reason that modern culture; whereas symbolic interactionists would try to regulate how the individuals of a certain modern culture interpret their environment or what impact others have on the development of somebody's self image; and issue theorists would take a look at power differences between various sets of a population, where they come from and what effect they have on that population.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)