The vocation against the profession in the theory...

Vocation against profession in M. Weber's theory

In M. Weber's theory, the concept of a profession is revealed through the analysis of the individual's behavior, the system of his values, along with such larger social and historical processes that have influenced the development of professions, as the professional structure of society and the professional vocation of the individual.

He raises the problem of conjugation of vocation and vocation. Theoretical construction of the profession, according to Weber, depends on the social and technical division of labor. Profession is a specification, specialization and combination of the individual's functions that form the basis of a permanent opportunity for security or earnings. Weber notes that economic goals prevail in the market economy over the interests of professional development proper. In a traditional society under pre-market economy, occupations are formed on the basis of specialization of labor through the natural development of the individual skills of the producer. In these conditions, the division of labor according to ability still does not obey the economically and technologically conditioned division of labor.

The professional structure of society, according to Weber, depends on the degree of development of typical occupations, the level of professional specialization, the way to achieve professional stability and mobility. The main condition inclusion of employment in the composition of professions - to give money. Other known signs of the profession are not binding for Weber, but are important as an attribute of the already established stable professions. These (characteristics) include the constancy of the occupation, the need for training, the level of qualifications, the nature of the abilities used.

The definition of the profession is based on the understanding of professional groups as status collectives (a similar style of life, common and shared morals, language and culture, religious identity). Weber's professional groups are internally solidary communities that have some degree of secrecy from society, with the goal of expanding their powers in the use of power, culture, social and other privileges. He puts forward the following characteristics of professional groups:

1) As typical components of modern society, they are included in the struggle against other groups (including the bureaucratic state apparatus);

2) united by a common interest (the most typical - economic goals and motives, but not only as an additional - the achievement of a positive public image);

3) the main meaningful resource is knowledge (education) and qualifications, which imposes restrictions on the potential income (the lower and upper of its bars), as a result of which these resources have a clearly marked place in the social hierarchy;

4) the societal positions of professional groups are determined in part by the structural characteristics of an industrial society, in part by the collective actions of groups (especially social closure strategies).

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