The work of primitive societies, First communities of people - Labor Sociology

The work of primitive societies

Types of labor in a primitive society are complex and diverse: gathering, hunting, fishing, making tools, building temporary shelters, and foci in them, erecting religious buildings, making jewelry, household (cooking and creating food storage facilities ) etc. In human societies, in contrast to the society of anthropic creatures (naleantrons, archanthropes, Neanderthals, etc.), tools and tools are becoming more sophisticated and more complex. Instead of a stone, a simple stick or a stick in the Cro-Magnon people, the technology of combining a stick and a stone appears: with the help of plants or animals, the stone is attached to a stick (then a complex technique of weaving and knitting knots appears). Thus, the main symbol and tool of the Stone Age is created - a stone ax, with the help of

which is not only lengthened hand, and repeatedly increases the force of impact. The era of making tools from the horn and bone comes, they begin to make dishes and utensils made of wood. So gradually distributed specialized tools.

First communities of people

Before proceeding to the description of individual types of labor, it is necessary to decide what we call primitive societies. In any case, the word primitive does not mean underdeveloped or in any sense defective societies.

It's important to remember!

Primitive societies are understood by us as primitive, historically the first existing societies. Primitive does not mean simple, the structure of these societies and the relationships in them are quite complex.

The question arises as to when there are primitive societies. The Roman philosopher Lucretius Car (99 BC - 55 BC) in the work "On the Nature of Things" suggested a primitive era to share precisely the labor principle, more precisely, the material of tools - the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. After him, the era of primitive society continues to be divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic. According to this classification, primitive societies belong to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. American ethnographer of the XIX century. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) in the book "Ancient society or the study of the lines of human progress from savagery through barbarism to civilization" (1877) distinguished in the history of mankind the first stage as "savagery".

The scientist's opinion.

At the stage of savagery, there already exists articulate speech (the lowest stage of savagery), then the use of fire (the middle stage of savagery) and, finally, the use of bow and arrows (the highest stage of savagery). Barbarism already means the transition from hunting and gathering as the main types of labor to farming and cattle breeding. At this stage, there are pottery and iron making.

In time, the savage epoch begins from prehistoric times (during the Paleolithic period) and must end with the Mesolithic (10 thousand years ago). However, the Paleolithic period (2.4 million years - 10,000 years ago) is very extensive, there are different kinds of anthropoid beings that are much closer to primates than to humans. Approximately 40 thousand years ago there were only two species: Neanderthals and homo sapiens (perhaps there was one or two more species). In appearance, these people are very similar to the modern man, they had a developed culture, their social organization resembles the social organization of modern primitive tribes, although it is possible to reconstruct their social life with a certain degree of probability. Nevertheless, the history of primitive societies can be safely begun from this period.

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