Theoretical Foundations of Social Work Technology
Social problems: sources and content
Man and the world is the most important system that interests mankind. The whole life of a person is interaction with the surrounding world: other people, groups of people, state structures, objects of living and inanimate nature, etc. If a person does not interact with the world around him, he does not exist for the world.
The interaction of a person with the world around him is his essential feature, which has subjective and objective components. There are typical and unique mechanisms of interaction.
Typical mechanisms of interaction - gaming, training and work. They are also called forms of human activity. In addition to the above, to the multitude of actively active forms, human relations to the world include combat and sports activities, cognition, communication, management of people, amateur performance, etc.
Unique mechanisms of interaction are determined by the content and level of development of human resources. Their variety and dynamism are determined by the following properties and conditions:
1) the essential subjective properties of a person - its genetic, physiological and psychological characteristics
2) objective conditions - the properties and dynamics of economic, political and spiritual and moral processes occurring in society and the world.
The results of human interaction with the world are different and depend only on external conditions, but also on the nature of this interaction. Realizing the interaction with the world, satisfying their needs, each person receives a result that satisfies or does not satisfy the person himself and the society around him.
A person is a social being, and his inability to interact with the world is manifested in the following forms:
1) Unmet needs and interests;
2) tense psychoemotional relations with the individual, group, community;
3) manifestations of unresolved contradictions, etc.
The results of this interaction are defined by the term "social problems of a person". The concept of "human problem" It is widely used in all branches of scientific knowledge, but there are no fundamental studies of this phenomenon.
The concept of "social needs most adequately reflects the sources of dissatisfaction. For example, any person can show dissatisfaction with the activities of government bodies, which are obliged to carry out activities to prevent offenses among minors. However, this dissatisfaction is not a social problem for a person. The social problem in this case is the growth of crimes and crimes among minors at the level of the state, city, region, district, which threatens human security. This person realizes the problem on his own experience in the form of antisocial manifestations: robbery, robbery, murder, violence.
Social problems can be classified according to the scale of their development as follows:
1) public (public);
2) regional (local);
Also, social problems can be classified by content as follows:
4) psychological, etc.
According to the degree of resolution, social problems are distinguished, solved in principle, and not solvable.
All levels of social problems are interrelated and condition each other. So, if there is a problem of unemployment growth at the state, regional and municipal levels, then at the level of a specific person this problem appears as an unmet need for employment. The social problem at the level of the country and the region - the growth of unemployment - generates poverty at an individual (group) level, low income, crime, stress, aggression, etc.
In scientific research, contradictory definitions of the concept "social problem" are given.
So, R. Dentler believes that social problems are conditions that significant groups of people define as deviating from certain social standards or destroying the social organization. S. Eicen argues that the social problem is an undesirable situation incompatible with the values of most people who agree that actions are required to change the situation.
These definitions of social problems do not quite reflect the essence of the concept, since they do not give an answer to the question of the sources of the appearance of "deviating conditions", "situations incompatible with the values of the majority", "undesirable situations". They only provide an assessment of specific manifestations of social problems, using the definitions "destructive", "incompatible", "unwanted" and so on
The presence of social problems is a pattern associated with the existence of a number of objective factors that determine their presence at all levels. The sources of social problems include social contradictions, social and natural risks, unmet needs.
Social problems - First, these are phenomena that reflect the content of the accumulated unresolved social contradictions in the system of social relations, and secondly, the unmet needs of the person in communication, security, material support, satisfaction of spiritual needs, and thirdly, it is a person's psychological reactions to life situations.
Contradictions from the point of view of dialectics are the emergence of differences, opposites. In the struggle of the opposite, qualitatively they are separated and revealed, which ultimately leads to a break in their interrelations and unity. Their resolution at the same time leads to the emergence of new opposites and contradictions.
An example of the problems of the first kind are migration, involuntary resettlement, unemployment as a reflection of the existing contradiction between the needs in the workplace and their real supply, etc.
Problems of the second kind include illness, old age, disability, loneliness, poverty.
Examples of the third type of problems are stress, stupor, aggression, etc.
At the level of the state and regions, social problems are the object of social activity and specific actions of the executive authorities. The laws adopted at the state and regional levels aimed at regulating relations in various spheres of society, and there are concrete actions aimed at solving social problems. In addition, at the state level, measures are taken to facilitate the resolution of social problems at the individual or group level. To this end, a system of social services institutions is created, the main content of which is social work aimed at helping, solving problems by developing the resources of their carriers.
At the level of a particular person, social problems manifest themselves as unmet needs and acquire forms of lack of work, housing, livelihoods, violence, homelessness.
People have different approaches to solving their problems. They can be divided into the following groups:
1) knowing how to solve the problem, and having the opportunity to do it without any help, dey
Based on their abilities, available knowledge, according to a well-known algorithm, a ready-made recipe, a template;
2) lost the ability to solve the problem, but having an internal need for this, under certain conditions are able to do it themselves;
3) capable and willing to solve problems independently, but for this there is no possibility in society;
4) not possessing sufficient abilities and not wishing to solve the problem without outside help.
If a person has impaired ability, there is no need or no possibility of social functioning in society, then a person needs help in their recovery or development. Social problems are an indicator of the crisis of social functioning of a person in society and testify to the absence of objective or subjective factors contributing to the solution of the problem.
Sources of human social problems lie in the nature of its interaction with the surrounding world, in the conditions of macro-, meso- and microenvironment. They generate a tendency to abuse alcohol and drugs, vagrancy, prostitution, etc.
To determine the causes of individual problems, it is necessary to consider a whole complex of factors and phenomena, including the characteristics of its resources.
Considering a person's problems as a manifestation of contradictions with which a person can not or does not want to cope on his own, one can conclude that there is a crisis in his social functioning in society.
Such a person is defined as experiencing difficulties in social functioning or in a socially dangerous situation. Being in the system of social relations, he feels disharmony of relations through lack of work, housing, social status, means of subsistence, relatives, violation of relationships with other people, etc.
The source of social problems is the inability or lack of a person's readiness to interact with the world, which affect the emotional and psychological state of a person, determine his social status and his material and everyday situation.
Emotional-psychological subjective manifestations of a person are determined by its problem and develop at the level of individual existence.
The level of mental manifestations obeys its laws, the essence of which is relative independence from consciousness, self-awareness of the individual and dependence on the characteristics of the subject of activity. The subject at the same time is regarded as a system of objective patterns of mental functioning, taken in certain conditions of the emergence and manifestation of a given mental content. A subject is a person, a social individual, for whom the unity of internal and external manifestations conditioned by social relations and manifesting as a typical is of decisive importance. In this case, the subject and the object do not exist without each other.
The subject characteristics of a person are manifested in interaction with the surrounding world, in activity. Initially, the active social individual as a subject manifests itself and becomes a socially active being through various activities.
Man as a subject is the highest integrity of all his complex and contradictory qualities: mental processes, states and properties that are formed in the course of historical and individual development.
Thus, subjective patterns characterize the unconscious level of the psychic, are determined by the stable features of the subject and are heterogeneous multilevel, systemic tendencies.
As one of the mechanisms of subjective regularities, the installation is considered. Installation is a mechanism for transforming the significance of the environment. If the installation appeals to activity, it puts before the subject the main, most significant task at the moment. If the problem is solved, the installation becomes obsolete; If such an implementation does not take place, then the order in the subject's experiences is disrupted, disorganization arises. Conflicts arise, which are eliminated by changing other settings.
Human subjectivity is also characterized by how a person treats phenomena of the objective world (to other people, to himself, to social problems), i.e. emotional relationship. Emotions have an adaptive function, they are related to the needs of the person, perform the functions of evaluation and motivation, they show the correspondence of human behavior and the influences it experiences to its basic needs, interests and values. They represent a holistic attitude of a person to the world, they are closely connected with self-consciousness and personal identity, they represent the main motivational system of a person, personal meanings are represented in them.
Emotional reactions and human states are the main form of awareness of their own individuality. They are an indicator that indicates a person's true attitude to the problem, including his own cognitive and behavioral functioning.
Emotional reactions are purely individual manifestations, an indicator of the inner life of a person. A person's awareness of his true feelings, as well as their expression, is an indispensable condition for the effectiveness of psychosocial work with a person in gaining integrity and mental health.
The system of mental and emotional processes and properties can be modified at the personal level of the subject's functioning. Personal values, spiritual quest, life goals and strategies, the desire for self-assertion, self-expression, finding the meaning of life can create a whole range of problems for a person with whom he can cope on his own or with outside help.
In any psychic phenomenon, there is always unconscious and conscious. For a person as a subject of activity and behavior, consciousness is of decisive importance and acts as a determinant insofar as the reflecting subject formulates the goals of his activity. When the subject realizes, comprehends, understands his motives, the consequences of his actions, the meaning of his actions, the appropriateness of his life activity as a whole, evaluates it, analyzes it through the prism of meaning-forming values, then the highest level of mental functioning manifests itself - subjective-personal . In this case, the person independently solves the problem. If this does not happen, he needs support or help.
The level of a person's life determines his ability and need to independently provide his life. Lack of work for a person is a reality in which he feels hunger, cold, lack of home, and also experiences subjective emotional experiences. They manifest themselves deviant (from deviation - deviation from the correct line, from the proper direction under the influence of any external causes) behavior (drug use, alcohol), antisocial behavior (violation of the law), maladaptation.
In the conditions of spiritual and social crisis of society, the danger of human despair, loss of the meaning of human life increases. Understanding of the individual is impossible without consideration of it together with the society in which he lives. Human being is the formation of man, the development of the ability and need for interaction with the world, the perfection of his spirit. The destruction of social relations is generated by social problems, and inability to social functioning turns into social problems of man and society. The result is deformed aspirations and drives.
Identify specific psychological mechanisms that create the basis for various types of unproductive orientation: masochistic, sadistic, destructive and conformist types.
Everyone has their own peculiarities of emotional and psychological load. Personality is not only included in a concrete life, the personality is building a concrete life. It builds the circumstances, conditions, situations, interactions, activities and makes them dependent on themselves, on their consciousness and self-awareness.
The subjectivity of emotions is the result of the ontological development of a person, but their repetition leads to the development of certain standards for responding to a particular situation. This is the result of the impact of social phenomena (domestic, economic, psychological, political, medical, etc.), complicating the life of a person and causing various changes in his behavior. Subjectivity of emotions determines the essence of a person's social problems: aggression, stress, melancholy, conflictness, etc.
A person who has inconveniences from the manifestation of various social phenomena, if their impact is great and he is unable to overcome them, experiences difficulties, tension and inconvenience. They are manifested through psychoemotional perception, experience, response and consequences. Consequently, the subjective emotional and psychological experience, which is reflected in the behavior of a person, can also be a social problem.
To understand the essence of human social problems, their correct formulation is important. As you know, correctly formulating a problem means half solving it, and this applies equally to both scientific and social life problems.
It is impossible to consider as identical concepts social and vital problems of a person. So, a vital problem for a person - overweight - is not at all a social problem of society, a task for solving at the state scale. Her decision is a person's personal task. Although under certain conditions this problem can turn into a social one.
The next major source of human social problems are risks. On the one hand, risk is often perceived as something contrary to the normal state of human activity. On the other hand, risky activities are a normal characteristic of the activity and its necessary condition.
Risk - This is a socio-historical phenomenon that accompanies the activities of social actors in the face of uncertainty and the situation of inevitable choice. A man deciding to get off the beaten track life track, must have the appropriate resources. He must show ingenuity, eccentricity of thinking, courage, etc.
There are following forms of risk:
1) the risk associated with the propensity of people to extremism, the desire to assert themselves, to achieve the triumph of exactly their way of solving certain problems;
2) the risk caused by the incompetence of people, their inability to foresee even the immediate consequences of their actions. Such a risk in governance at the state level leads to a crisis in the social relations of man in society. Therefore, even to justified, reasonable risk as a necessary component of the activity there is a cautious attitude.
One of the components that are immanently present in a person's life and transforming into his social problems under certain conditions are natural risks arising regardless of the will and desire of the person and society. These include old age, illness, childbirth, natural disasters and catastrophes, wars and many other manifestations. In this case, it is important not to overcome the risk, but the ability and readiness of a person to overcome its consequences. Such a task can not be solved only with the help of appeals and exhortations to endure difficulties and hardships.
First, because the ability and ability to overcome the consequences of risk in all people are different. Some are looking for ways to solve the problem, while others are waiting for help.
Secondly, any human interaction with reality contains elements of riskiness. And this means that the interaction of man with the world is fundamentally risky for the following reasons:
1) the result of the interaction can not be absolutely predictable;
2) people are always capable of changing the decision taken and ways of its practical implementation;
3) there is a natural risk, independent of the human will and desire.
The share of riskiness of different types of human activity is different. However, it is hardly susceptible to any precise measurement, for the very content of risk is determined by so many factors: from the state of the spiritual world of the acting subject to the objective conditions and factors of each particular situation and the opposing efforts of other people in one way or another related to the act being carried out. .
A person should be ready psychologically, physically, emotionally and professionally to cope with the consequences of risk situations. For this, the following conditions are necessary:
1) the opportunity for active, free interaction in a situation where a person is able and willing to do so in accordance with his physiological, psychological, and professional qualities;
2) freedom of choice, when a person can not cope with the situation.
The manifestation of social contradictions and risks in a person's life at the level of society is typical, and at the level of a particular person it is always individual.
Example . If at the society level the flood appears as a typical social disaster associated with the flooding of rivers, then at the level of the person caught in the flood zone, these are individual-personal problems or unsatisfied problems determined by many factors. That is why the means, forms and methods used to solve problems related to flooding at the state level and at the level of a particular person are different.
The degree of risk to the life of society and people depends on many factors: political, ideological, managerial, personal, scientific, technical, as evidenced by the social results of the reform carried out in the country.
According to the research of G.V. Osipov and V.V.Lokosov, Russia demonstrated the "miracle" in the process of reforming United States society: the unique destruction of the economy in peacetime by the scale and pace. The level of decline in industrial production in critical years passed extremely critical value in the world economy and reached 46% in 2000. The share of domestic products in world exports was 12%. As the level of economic development of Russia was much inferior to the leading countries of the world, its dependence on external factors bordered on the loss of economic independence and political sovereignty.
Macro-social economic trends in the development of society are just as risky. > & Gt; Poverty, crime, homelessness are slowly declining, incentives for work are weakened. According to the International Fund for Social, Economic and Political Studies, the deterioration of the life of the United States people is unique in peacetime, because it affects the main aspects of human life and threatens the preservation of the gene pool of the nation.
The following kind of social problems - antisocial (not public), atypical (not conforming to the pattern, form), unusual.
This is a world of deviant behavior, disease, violence, loneliness, crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc. Deviation as the ability to deviate from the main direction, type and channel of development is inherent in all phenomena, objects, processes in animate and inanimate nature and society. This is the result of the interaction and interaction of things and man. This is the reason for the diversity of the surrounding world and society. In the same lies the essence of the uniqueness, individuality and uniqueness of each person.
According to the criteria accepted in the community, deviation is viewed as a socially positive and socially negative phenomenon. Such a criterion is social & quot ;. Social manifests itself as a criterion for assessing the adequacy of the state of society and its constituent entities to the level of social progress achieved, contributing to an understanding of the extent to which any social phenomenon, process, community contributes to the harmonious development of society, the individual in a cohesive unity.
Evaluation deviation depends on the system of economic, political and moral, temporal and spatial coordinates, from the perspective of which it is considered.
Example . Thus, speculation as a social phenomenon in the Soviet period was viewed as a criminal activity, but in the market conditions it is already entrepreneurial activity, and a person who knows how to do this is already called an entrepreneur not a speculator.
The form of antisocial is disadaptation. Disadaptation - This is a condition that determines the level and nature of human interaction with the world, when a person does not know, can not, or can not, comprehend forms, methods and means functioning in society.
A person can be disadapted in a normal social environment and adapted to deviant or vice versa.
Example . So, a person who got into an accident and became an invalid turns into a maladjusted and professionally and socially.
The adoption of legal and socio-practical measures of assistance is necessary in the following cases:
1) changes in the environment make it impossible for a person to achieve new goals by old methods;
2) changes in the person make it impossible for him to achieve new goals in the old environment;
3) the presence of unresolved contradictions does not allow a person to function and realize his potential;
4) changes in health status, social status do not allow a person to fully function in society;
5) Unmet need causes tension, discomfort, which turn into contradictions.
Man can deal with problems on his own under the following conditions:
1) he is psychologically strong;
2) he has a need to adapt to new conditions of life and life support;
3) the society will create the appropriate conditions;
4) society will help a person to update his resources.
The life of a particular person is always deeply individual and unique. The lives of two disabled people, single people, the elderly, drug addicts, the unemployed are living in two different realities. Therefore, there can not be the same ways to solve the same problems.
Typical human problems are solved at the state level, and the solution of the problems of a particular person needs an individual approach.
Measure the results of human activity, i.e. determine the state of human resources by the nature and content of the problems that it solves. In the process of their solution, objectively reveal the value, quality, level of development of the individual human potential. Problems are an indicator of a person's ability to engage in social reality. Solving social problems, a person reveals his potentialities and opportunities.
A person's life in the fullness of its manifestations of sociality, asociality, deviance, etc. Is an indicator of the state of his ability to interact freely with the outside world
If a person is maladaptive, asocial, feels the manifestations of social contradictions, risks, this does not mean that the reasons for this state of things are only in nature or only in society. The source of the problems of human life is the nature of its interaction with the surrounding world. A person can change if the cause that makes his life problematic is transformed, eliminated either by himself, or with the help of other people, if one can not do it on his own. That is why in society, a professional social activity is needed, aimed at the development, restoration or correction of the creative principle in man.
In order for a person to realize himself, it is necessary to create conditions for his active attitude to life. Only by putting and solving vital tasks, a person develops, forms his resources and becomes capable of implementing them.
The system of social institutions for social protection and provision of services to the population is a whole branch in the structure of the United States state that has been formed over the years of reforms. Never before has Russia had so many and so many social institutions created to provide assistance and social services to the population.
The institutions of social protection and social services and the specialists who work there ensure the social safety of society in practice. Their functions are as follows.
1. Adaptation of the population to market mechanisms of functioning of the economy and social sphere.
2. Development of creative potential of clients.
3. Accepting most of the negative emotions of the population about the government's actions and the unpopular economic and social measures taken by the population.
4. Ensuring that Russia fulfills its international obligations with respect to the observance of the rights, social protection and social services for disabled people, the elderly, women and children.
5. Development of resources of various categories of the population and inculcating the need for self-service and self-sufficiency.
6. Ensuring the social rehabilitation of disabled people.
7. Development of skills of stress resistance.
8. Work but prevention of suicide, apathy, aggression, melancholy.
9. Work with lonely and lonely elderly people, street children, people without a fixed place of residence, orphans, veterans of war and labor, people who have experienced violence, migrants, unemployed, drug and alcohol addicts, people with mental health problems, crisis families and e.
There are the following areas of practical activity of social security institutions and social services to address the problems of the individual, group and community.
The Territorial Social Service (TSS) consists of the following specialized territorial centers:
1) the Center for Social Assistance to Families and Children, which has departments for social rehabilitation and preventive work, counseling, development of family entrepreneurship, etc., as well as practical aid units: outreach complex brigades; service of emergency psychological help; legal and psychological-pedagogical consultation; dating service; department of day stay;
2) the center of psychological and pedagogical assistance to families and children, designed to help in overcoming conflicts in the family, to improve the psychological culture of the population in the sphere of family, marital, parental communication; to help families experiencing difficulties in raising children, in preventing emotional and mental crisis; provide qualified psychological and pedagogical assistance to persons of different risk groups;
3) emergency psychological help service by phone ("hotline"), whose task is to reduce psychological discomfort, the level of aggressiveness of family members;
4) social rehabilitation center for minors, providing social and medical and psychological assistance and support to those who are in a crisis situation in life. Minors during the time necessary for their rehabilitation visit the center or receive in it a temporary shelter. The center includes emergency social services, medico-psychological diagnosis and correction, social rehabilitation, adaptation of children and adolescents, the service of social and legal protection and legal assistance, sometimes - a shelter for living in a hospital
5) a social shelter for children and adolescents, organized to save homeless children and adolescents, providing them with temporary shelter, medical and psychological assistance, and solving problems of their future life. The shelter can be organized as an independent institution of a territorial social service and as part of a social rehabilitation center for minors;
6) the center for assistance to children left without parental care, who carries out the maintenance and the device for further education in the family or in a public institution of orphans and children left without parental care (from birth to 18 years);
7) a rehabilitation center for children and adolescents with disabilities, created for the purpose of social adaptation of a child with deviations in physical and mental development, the formation of a positive attitude towards life, society, family, education, work with the help of a complex of medical, social, pedagogical-psychological and other measures;
8) The Center for Social Services of Population (CSO) or the complex social service center (KSSO), whose main task is the provision of social services to the population (the elderly, lonely or lonely, handicapped, orphans, etc.). In the structure of the centers there may be branches of social services at home, day care units, emergency social assistance departments, analytical and methodological work departments, juvenile crime prevention departments, social support units, medical and social assistance departments, social patronage departments, etc.
The network of territorial social service may also include (depending on the existing conditions and specific features of the district) youth centers, centers for new forms of preschool education and out-of-school work; crisis centers for assistance to refugees affected by natural disasters and crimes that have served a criminal sentence; free and preferential canteens, points of distribution of products, clothes, baby food.
The goal of the state social policy for citizens in need of assistance is to raise the level and quality of their lives by changing the policy of income, improving regulatory mechanisms in the sphere of protection of rights and interests, pensions, health care, a wide range of social services targeted assistance, contributing to normal livelihoods. Achievement of this goal and the implementation of the tasks in the city are carried out by district departments of social protection of the population.
Social institutions provide sanitation and hygiene services, comprehensive sanitation and hygiene services, provide comprehensive cleaning of apartments, home-based social and hygienic services, patronage and social services, transfer food kits free of charge, provide hot meals, provide clothing, psychological assistance, provide legal advice , deliver goods of durable use, provide material assistance, equip the lifts in the bathroom of the apartment for disabled people suffering from a disease of the musculoskeletal system. Various rehabilitation services are provided in the social rehabilitation departments.
The emergence of social problems in society is an objective result of its development and development of human needs. The system of social institutions and services is created in order to solve them in time, effectively and qualitatively.
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