Theories of The London Riots

Secondly, Karl Marx's class turmoil theory of Marxism will be discussed regarding its theoretical input to the initial leading to of the riots. Capitalism engenders offense through the infusion of egotistic tendencies with the failing of methods to satisfy such demands. A financial hierarchy has been created where wealth and materials possessions are necessary when escalating up this hierarchy.

Lastly, the idea of consumer culture will be considered in response to the London riots. Consumer culture is broadly defined as ones desire and capacity in living beyond basic needs. Merton (1938) suggests that criminal offense occurs when an individual's ambitions of material wealth cannot be achieved in a socially acceptable manner, leading to method of deviance such as fraud.

Social Exclusion in response to the London riots.

'Individuals, families and teams can be said to be in poverty when. . . their resources are so significantly below those commanded by the common specific or family that they are, in place, excluded from regular living patterns, traditions and activities' (Townsend, 1979). We have to remember that communal exclusion doesn't just happen within the working classes; it can happen across all the classes. Social exclusion differs to Marxism in that it doesn't concern itself mainly with poverty, social exclusion can be multi-dimensional in which poverty is typical, but not always implicated (Saunders, 2003).

Social exclusion is compare to Marxism in that the concentrate isn't on poverty and course. Cultural exclusion happens for many global origins, whether this can be through the drop of manufacturing establishments and the creation of structural unemployment.

Wilson (1996) features issues with people attempting to work but not having the necessary skills or education to do so. This therefore leads them into financial deprivation then essentially crime i. e. looting and robbery. University fees now situate themselves at 9, 000 only. This prices out a lot of people leaving them without the required education to strive and achieve at work. With regards to the riots, it is this exclusion from societal expectations that leads individuals to have to battle for their devote modern culture. Bauman and Rose also argue that lively rejection of the low class by contemporary society by downsizing industry creating higher unemployment, the labelling of these without jobs and the ideology that the low school are criminogenic, violent, with many being ethnic. Social exclusion detracts poverty and class away from the sources of crime however, that was a very visible concern in the spread of the riots. Coupled with this there exists hardly any theory to actually explain the causes and effects of social exclusion where is very clear within the Marx ideas.

MacDonald and Marsh (2002) declare that 'it has become a puzzling and slippery "catch-all" saying' with no real explanation. Social exclusion reiterates the implication of dichotomy between exclusion and inclusion (Levitas 1996; see also Hills et al. 2002) in which is very inadequately explained.

Marxism in response to the London riots.

Representation of anger and resentment from the working school, predominantly the poorest, most excluded individuals were shown towards the police, capitalism and racial victimisation throughout the London riots. The catalyst for the original target was the getting rid of of Make Duggan by law enforcement officials. Information from the authorities and the news headlines teams which implemented this unlawful killing were contradictory and unclear leading to an uproar of stress and anger. Marx would suggest that the police are an company of armed men, who look to put into action the authoritarianism of the bourgeoisie. Furthermore, he would claim that the advertising and police are all products of the same billionaires who account and own such organisations. This in conjunction with the consumerist modern culture is exactly what drove individuals to rebel.

The Marxist theory suggests that societal common sense of a person is performed on the material of their finances and wardrobe as appose with their characteristics and personality (Clinnard and Meier, 2008). Marx says that in which a 'ruling class' classification is achieved; the individuals not situated in this group will revolt against them who do, thus creating electricity interactions between different communal organizations (Haralambos and Holborn, 2007). Inequality is largely fuelled through sociable deprivation; this creates jealousy, greed and conflict within societies and subsequently leads to general population exhibits of rebellion and revolt. The London riots of 2011 suggest that a society driven by consumerism induces anti-social behaviour, coupled with the huge amount of material 'looting', we can suppose that this revolt was targeted at the wealthy capitalists who situate themselves pinnacle through this hierarchy of riches and importance.

Whilst making use of Marxism to the riots and real life it would seem to be that accountability for essential parts of society are lacking. A Marxist population see's individuals who work hard being compensated with prosperity and stability for his or her initiatives. Unemployment rates were remarkably high within contemporary society during the riots providing well informed and skilled individuals no means of income or on the other hand, struggling whilst working hard in low paid careers. Furthermore, within the riots it was explained that individuals engaged were all low category, young and criminogenic complimentary to Marxist views of scammers being from a 3rd school, lumpenproletariat. Amongst those convicted for rioting however was a millionaire's princess and law university student who were tightly nestled within middle income families.

Colvin and Pauly (1983) suggested that folks in lower paid careers are controlled at the job through manipulation and coercion. This can further be observed in the business lead up to the riots of August 2011 through the policing of communities. 73 % of people interviewed in the 'reading the riots' article had been stopped and researched within days gone by year. Marx indicate that this strong policing on specific communities are the 'ruling' course exploiting the working course, thus explaining engagement within the riots as an act of hatred for the regulators.

Consumer Culture in response to the London riots.

Throughout the aftermath of the London riots many areas of society have been put through culpability in the reasoning for the preliminary causing of the rebellion and revolt. However, rather a large aspect of societal influence hasn't been subjected to this liability, this being designers, retail companies and electric powered suppliers. The riots weren't focussed on the destruction of property or violent problems upon our administration/forces instead these riots were at the mercy of obtaining goods free of charge. Footlocker, JJB, Carphone Warehouse etc. these were are just some of the shops in which were targeted but these young individuals, this approaching as no real surprise. Businesses like these are home to the products in which are most desired by individuals today, highlighting that the riots took place due with an 'out of control consumerist ethos' (Hawkes, 2011).

Consumer culture comes with an illustrious history behind it. Slater (1997) mentioned that 'consumer culture is discovered every few ages; or, to be uncharitable, it has been redesigned, repackaged and relaunched as a new academic and politics product every generation since the sixteenth hundred years'. Significantly, consumer culture became 'mass' through the 20th century, specifically after the Second World Battle (Hall et al. 2008). This shows that under no actions will consumer culture be operated. Consumption has replaced production as the defining feature of Western societies (Lasch 1979, Bauman 1998). Advertising is prominent in every part of a person's life, Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, they are new and improved ways that products can be publicised. It really is this continuous barrage of consumerism that brings about every aspect of an individual's life being consumeristic, education, where you reside etc. all are key in your social appearance.

Merton (1938) claims that when a materialistic riches struggles to be performed through socially suitable means, crime and deviance will take place. This links back to you well with Young's (2007) view of any 'bulimic' society in that 'massive cultural addition is accompanied by organized structural exclusion. ' Then continues to state that 'the consumer markets propagate a citizenship of joyful consumption yet the ability to spend (or even to go into) within the mall is greatly limited. ' The riots of August 2011 where referred to as 'envy masked as a triumphant carnival' (Zizek, 2011). Bankers, politicians, footballers etc. are all subject to plenty of publicity and it is their materialistic wealth that creates this want and envy, subsequently, resulting in individuals heading to these extreme lengths in order to achieve such prosperity.

Hayward (2004) however creates a different notion. He is convinced that the material goods where where taken through the riots where not for the prosperity they bestowed but additionally for the identity in which they gave the individual. Thus, where in fact the employed and prosperous are also looting it is hard to label these go for individuals into one generic category. This rebellion of consumerism and communal exclusion that sometimes appears everywhere when reasoning for the riots surely is wrong. It was an attempt to become listed on in (Bauman, 2011), climb that materialistic hierarchy and enhance your identity.


The theories mentioned above are merely three of several in which can account for the riots in August 2011. All three of the theories highlight issues encircling poverty, category and the exclusion where conjoins itself to the hierarchy of wealth. Karl Marx's capitalism advises response to the riots in that a good capitalism is needed to refresh Britain but we must then take into account the question, can capitalism be reformed to bank account these lower course individuals or just continue steadily to exploit them?

It is this exploitation where must be controlled and accessed within many societal areas. It is rather evident that the authorities forces misuse their stop and search powers and this is further directed at the same individuals in which are secluded from world from governmental statues and manifesto's; the youths, blacks and underprivileged. Education, course and employment are extremely regularly inaccessible for these individuals which, subsequently, lead to an eternity in criminal offenses as method of survival.

But where there is consumer culture, they will be exploitation. Our route, our role models tend to locate themselves at the best end of the hierarchy of wealth. We see the watches they buy, we see the clothes they wear, we see the automobiles they drive, this strive for success and these materials goods are the primary factors in which also spirals an individual into a life of criminal offense. The London riots saw an extremely large numbers of individuals looking over the laws and their morals to provide themselves with these material goods in which they probably wouldn't have owned without taking these options.

The conservative federal government have a brief history in capitalism, exploitation and the lack of societal ideals. We observed Margret Thatcher openly condition these views throughout her time as prime minister but, in this modern society where we live it is becoming obvious that these views will not stand and people can do anything in their power to rebel against this.

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