Two-factor model of motivation of F. Herzberg - Sociology of labor

Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation

If A. Maslow and K. Alderfer considered directly the needs that underlie the motivation, and in what order they are satisfied, F. Heriberg, developing the ideas of A. Maslow, identified the factors that have a motivating or demotivating effect on human behavior in the sphere of production.

In accordance with the theory of F. Herzberg, there are two groups of factors that motivate employees to actively work: hygienic (external) and motivational (internal). Hygienic factors are associated with the environment in which work is carried out, and motivating factors - with the very nature and essence of the work. Comparing the theories of A. Maslow and F. Herzberg, one can see that they have much in common. Hygienic factors in the concept of F. Herzberg correspond to the primary and social needs in the theory of A. Maslow. Unlike A. Maslow, F. Herzberg believes that the employee pays attention to hygiene factors only when he considers their implementation inadequate or unfair. These factors only affect the dissatisfaction with work. According to F. Herzberg, the processes of gaining satisfaction and growing dissatisfaction, from the point of view of the factors conditioning them, are two different processes. Factors that increase job satisfaction in the above concept are called motivational, and reduce the dissatisfaction with work - hygienic. Absence or inadequacy of motivational factors does not lead to dissatisfaction with work. Their security is fully motivated by job satisfaction and motivates employees to improve their efficiency.

Practical significance theory of F. Herzberg is that the choice of certain factors affects the satisfaction of staff with their own work. To effectively use the model of F. Herzberg, you need to rank the hygienic and motivating factors and invite employees to choose the most significant ones, depending on their motivational attitudes and needs. The introduction of motivating factors can activate the maximum possible participation of personnel in the affairs of the enterprise: from taking independent and responsible decisions at their workplace to complicity in the company's innovative programs.

F. Herzberg resorts to the two Old Testament images - Adam and Abraham - and claims that they are two different types of desires. Adam represents hygienic factors of motivational hygiene theory. In contrast, Abraham corresponds to the human desire to "define, discover, achieve, realize, develop and enrich one's existence"

Hence, Abraham is associated with the motivational aspect of the motivational-hygienic theory. According to F. Herzberg, Adam and Abraham (hygiene and motivators) are the two main independent components of the human being.

Being confident in the universality of his motivational hygiene theory, F. Hertzberg argued that the dichotomy of Adam (hygienic factor)/Abraham (motivational factor) is present in everyone. At the same time, the scientist somewhat softens this excessively straightforward position, assuming that individuals can have a predisposition or inclination "aimed at hygiene" or motivated & quot ;. For example, if an individual gravitating to hygiene is motivated by working conditions, the motivated motivation will be motivated by the essence of the job. Similarly, the hygiene seeker "will not receive special satisfaction from his work", while for the motivation seeker she will be "the main source of satisfaction". Aimed at hygiene, according to F. Herzberg, possesses an inherent animal desire for security, associated with Adam and having a rather negative essence. Such people will belong to the category of workers named F. Taylor "pretenders". Although hygiene-oriented people can cope with their duties, according to F. Herzberg, they can in no way be relied upon in difficult situations. The researcher writes: "I believe that the hygiene-oriented ones will let the company down at the very moment when it will most of all need their talents. They can be motivated only on time provided they receive some external compensation. In emergency situations, when the organization becomes, as they say, not hygiene, they may not be able to cope with their work. " . A person who is in hygiene, occupying a leading position, can deal a terrible blow to the future of the organization.

The practical conclusion from the theory of motivation F. Herzberg boils down to the following: in order to achieve motivation, the leader must ensure the presence of not only hygienic, but also motivating factors. The specific social meaning of this concept is manifested in the statement of the heterogeneity of the functional effect from the action of factors that are traditionally considered and used by leaders as equal incentives for subordinates.

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