Two sociological ideas and two psychological theories

The Johnson family Scenario

In this project I'll explore two sociological ideas and two mental ideas impacting on the Johnson family. I shall begin by discovering sociological theories analysing and defining them and in the next half of the assignment will then explore psychological ideas. I will also go through the professional interventions available in social work. I will endeavour to indicate their power and weaknesses adding their human relationships to issues of course, competition, culture gender and sexuality. I'll then reflect on the influence of these theories by myself development to accomplish communal work professional position.

Max Weber described consensus as existing when goals about the behavior of others are practical because others will usually recognize these objectives as valid for themselves, even lacking any explicit contract. For Marxists, consensus is an extremely ideological notion used to perpetuate category rule by wanting to disguise the level of discord within population. (Answers. com) Durkheim is known to have attracted an analogue of the functionalist perspective view in which he said that 'population is a system of interrelated parts each which relies upon the other areas for efficient working. '(Cunningham, J & Cunningham, S). These institutions are essential for retaining that contemporary society works harmoniously and orderly.

The view of the functionalist is that the utilization of power is satisfactory and generally beneficial to society. They show norms and worth which help them to determine the right from the wrong. There is an acceptance from the functionalist's positions that conflicts will take place but will only be non permanent and can quickly be resolved. Society should be effectively prepared to deal with cases of anti social behavior so that contemporary society all together benefits. Inside the functionalist perspective schools' first role is to emphasise proper behaviour and knowledge that is essential to maintain a civilised world. According to the functionalist, the kids in the Johnson's should therefore be delivered to college to be equipped with this weapon and the fact that they are truanting could easily be viewed as anti social behaviour.

Karl Marx did not at all trust capitalism's ideas of consensus and in his writing highlighted the issue theory, although acknowledging structural integration of society's corporations such as political, legal or religious which he referred to as the superstructure. His view was that staff in the category system like Desmond an automobile auto mechanic and Mary a make meals at a primary college were being exploited which there must be equality on control, electric power, riches and the best education. Marxists sensed that it was those with the method of production that got the power and for that reason significantly influenced all of those other society. This triggers a difference of interest among social groupings which causes conflict. As both Desmond and Mary will work this creates pressure on parenting skills and has probably obligated Desmond to choose sending Eustace to a home home.

Marxists understand functionalists as deceiving as the saying goes the norms and values which they state will be the backbone of population are infect their norms and values that only help to improve their positions perpetuating the unequal social system. Marxists argued that the staff were being replaced by machines in their functions of employment and this led to them loosing their skills, presuming monotonous jobs, separated from the other person by the noise and would come back home dehumanised and in physical form exhausted. Marx assumed the proletariat would realise the exploitation, join alongside one another and revolt overthrowing the system and creating true systems

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The Marxists view of public work is that it is a realtor of the state of hawaii and therefore reinforces the interest of the ruling course. Their view is usually that the talk about in capitalists societies will save you the passions of the ruling classes and do not treat their residents similarly even in situations of welfare services. They further state that the image of caring that they create is merely a misconception which serves to improve the profits of the capitalists that the public workers serve through the state. The Marxists do not see the requirement of the communal control role of public work but an agent of status bent on socially controlling those that already are marginalised and excluded. In this particular view social staff have a tendency to be ignorant of the poverty they are simply designed to be dealing with from the population by empowering service users to take action and produce change. The Johnson family appears overcrowded in their house which is associated with poverty. Communal staff have found themselves working with attached hands as the machine is tightly controlled and procedural therefore restricting social workers from performing exercises their knowledge.

Functionalists looked at the organization of family to be the best organisational basis for modern culture. Talcott Parsons (1955) insists that the family retains two 'basic and irreducible functions'. These are 'the main socialisation of children' and 'the stabilisation of adult personalities. ' Which means this view will make clear that for the family to keep up stability, it needs support to ensure normality. This point of view then explains that if there are signs or symptoms of antisocial behaviour such as truanting then the family unit must be supported. According to Murdock (1949) family carries out four important functions i. e. providing new people of the culture by reproduction, providing steadiness for parents through erotic gratification, providing for the financial well being and educating the young to socialise into society's norms and principles. Eustace's wondering and misunderstandings could be looked at as hindering by the functionalists since it is affecting Mary who they expect to be taking part in the society both as a mother and a worker as it is the institute that will influence good behaviour of children.

Functionalists assumed that the family is an optimistic organization, a view that satisfies well with the needs of a sophisticated industrial culture. The functionalists would view Eustace's bafflement as charging the contemporary society in conditions of healthcare for Mary and himself. Eustace's problems must be rectified in order to get Mary 'working' well again and be beneficial in the culture. Functionalists highlight the perfect family type in a modern population, as the nuclear family. The view of the nuclear family comprises of a breadwinner spouse ( in the circumstance this might be Desmond) and dependant partner and children. Mary cannot be categorized as dependant as she is also working and earning.

The functionalist view of the family as ideological is criticised as a conservative stance. Some feminists' criticise this view as being unrealistic as it generally does not recognise the oppression of women in young families. However, they protect the declare that the functionalist view of family life is shared by many people, if not only as an aspiration. The nuclear family sometimes appears as traditional and positive. Marxism state governments that the family is something of capitalism and is also therefore an exploitative organization. They claim that families aren't built upon love but are founded from need. Women therefore end up being the property of men and everything roles within households exist in order to keep up a capitalist point out.

There are two classes in the contemporary society relating to Marxism. The first is the ruling course and the other is the subject course. The Johnson family would be grouped as a subject school and their employers like the car port owners where Desmond works is the ruling class. That is opposed by functionalist who remarks that there are many classes in society and tips to a division of labour.

Eustace's situation is also triggering friction between Desmond (a father and auto technician) and Mary in so doing threatening the institution of family. However a Marxist would carry another view placing the blame on Mary being over performed and thereby causing her to be stressed out. They highlight the lack of good care from the employers who do not pay well enough keeping most of the profits to themselves prompting Mary to work extended hours.

Desmond is reported to be impatient with Eustace who he sees as stressing his better half at home 'while endeavoring to do her job. ' This looks a functionalist view where Desmond can be involved about Mary being disrupted in doing her job hence not able to contribute to the income.

Mary and Desmond may have moved to the UK in response to the best drive for workforce after the world war. These were guaranteed better lives with luxurious facilities and then realise when they arrived in the UK which it was not the case and they were required to work difficult to make a living. Desmond's role would be to provide and Mary also doing this role as she also works. Caring for Eustace could be observed by Desmond as preventing Mary from carrying out the task expected within her role, a view that the feminists would regard as oppressive.

Whilst various sociological school of thought tries to describe family circumstances and possible interventions which could assist families it isn't adequate in itself. In this framework I'll now utilize subconscious perspectives. The article will examine mental ideas of behavioural procedure, which developed through the works of Thorndike (trial and error learning), Pavlov (traditional conditioning) and Skinner (operant fitness) who all thought that the environment controlled behavior.

Behavioural theory is dependant on a "medical method" (Banking institutions, 2001. p. 73) and on what can be "observed, analyzed, assessed and reliably transformed" (Feltham, 1995; cited in Adams R, Dominelli L & Payne M, 2002. p. 144). It argues that interior says such as thoughts, intentions and feeling aren't observable and replicable, hence are not open to technological analysis, it aims to eliminate or reduce behaviours that are regarded difficult while positive behaviours are encouraged, an agreement between the service customer and the practitioner through the process of favorably reinforcing and satisfying consequences a service end user consider valuable. Payne (1997) in his "token economies" (Payne, 1997. p. 133) argues that this helps reinforce and fortify the desirable behaviour.

This theory views the behaviourist let's assume that most behavior is learned because of this of our interactions with our environment, including psychological development, perceptions of the exterior world, social behavior and personality.

Milner and O'Byrne (1998 p112) details Classical conditioning developing when there is an connection of "conditioned and unconditioned stimulus" in a way that the former stir up a reply previously evoked only by the later. This was very much like Pavlov's (1911) finish in his famous 'Dog-Salivation-Experiment. If applied in this case study it would first make an effort to identify the initial stimulus, in cases like this, the loss of a loved one Susan, the response, Eustace's confusion and Mary's anxiousness and depression. 'Those associated with annoying or stressful emotions may become conditioned stimuli for thoughts of anger and anxiousness later on'. (Birch A, 1997, p139).

Another theory of behaviour Operant conditioning claims that learning occurs when voluntary behaviour arises from an individual and becomes pretty much likely to be repeated depending on its results as proven by Skinner (1953) in his 'Skinner-Box-Experiments' with a pet cat and a pigeon. In the Johnson family scenario, Mary is something user with melancholy and anxiety which Milner and O'Byrne argues "ABC Way" (Milner and O' Byrne, 1998. p. 114) is essential in discovering and analysing the behavior that needs modification in agreement with the service end user. Mary has gone to see the doctor on her behalf own accord and therefore there is an agreement. This would involve creating the Antecedent (looking after her father and the family), and the results (unhappiness and anxiousness). The consequences will either "strengthen or weaken behaviour by reinforcement or punishment" (Payne, 1997. p. 114). In Mary's circumstance it's the depression and panic that is unwanted. The distinctive feature of operant fitness relative to past types of behaviorism is usually that the organism ( Mary) can give off responses instead of only eliciting response scheduled to an exterior stimulus (the practitioner). It is likely that Mary would respond positively if the right responses have been strengthened.

Behaviourism models are beneficial because of their easy adaptability and practicability by inexperienced practitioners without extensive training than would be expected of the "psychodynamic way" (Adams, R, Dominelli, L and Payne, M, 2002. p. 144) in facilitating an efficient result. Payne (1997) also argues that the approved "explicit, structured instructionand assessment devices hired" (Payne, 1997. p. 134) gives unskilled professionals the confidence to apply behavioural theory and steps in interventions. My perception is that as behavioural treatment targets negative behaviour that requires changes, it is empowering the service consumer to choose and self determine the behaviours that need modification in partnership and therefore the practitioner is recognising and respecting individuality. The role of the specialist is to assist in and support the service customer. Thus, labelling and making judgement on the service end user is avoided and is then aimed to the behaviour.

Behavioural approaches have been criticised by some professionals as being "excessively mechanistic" (Bankers, 2001. p. 73) and "non-human" (Payne, 1997. p. 122) in a few of its methods, conducts and terms used, as they do not consider service user individuality and will to choose. It is true that Mary would vary from other service users who have used the same theory. The behavioural approach overall intervention emphasis is on the need to change or alter the client behavior alternatively than those around your client who may be the problem. In the event scenario it is most likely Desmond who we need to influence that Mary and Eustace need his understanding and assistance as well as working with the fact that the family weren't offered support to grieve and move on with life following the fatality of a

loved one. Milner and O'Byrne (1998) point out that social staff have a tendency to do as they find "better to change a person than struggle the position quo" (Milner and O'Byrne, 1998.

Attachment has been defined as "an affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through space and time and functions to join them emotionally" Kennell 1976.

John Bowlby described connection as a "lasting emotional connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the initial bonds shaped by children using their caregivers had a direct effect prolonged throughout their lives. Adult attachment theory helps Friendly Workers know how people feel and take action within close romantic relationships, particularly in demanding situations. Attachment is not different in adulthood and in child years as they all gives and obtain support. Attachment connections can be secure or insecure. Connection is clearly influential in both professional and personal options. As being a Social Employee knowing about the attachment theory can help make the right steps in order to protect the kid and the family.

Mary Ainsworth widened greatly on Bowlby's original use behaviour experiment which she known as "Strange Situation". In the study children between twelve months and 18 months were left alone with a stranger with the mother returning a moment later. The study exposed three major varieties of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment and avoidant insecure attachment. A fourth one was later added on by research workers Main and Solomon called disorganised insecure-attachment.

It is clear that Mary has a connection with her daddy and hence his condition is affecting her psychologically. The actual fact that Mary and Desmond's romance seemed to be strained with Eustace coping with them shows that they are simply experiencing insufficient intimacy support for one another.

The circumstance mentions the death of Susan in the family and looks that Eustace, Mary and the youngsters have been influenced. Loss through loss of life is a standard part of life experienced by everyone. The grief process differs in length which also will depend on the strength of the attachment. This period is usually very painful as the damaged seek to modify or deal without their loved one. Collin, Murray-parkes (1972) identifies bereavement as a sickness, thus in turn prompted Mary to see her doctor for help. The Johnson family appears not to have gone through the grieving process. Eustace is demonstrating a lack of interest in normal life by pondering and could be his way of searching for his wife. 'The grieving process includes psychological anguish ( Birch, A, 1997 p251)

Grief is thought as "the process of psychological, sociable and somatic reactions to the perceptions of reduction" (Rando, 1984). This clarifies that the average person is affected psychologically, bodily as well as socially. Bereavement is thought as "the state of having experienced a reduction" (Rando, 1984).

According to Balwby high separation nervousness is usually the result of adverse family activities, such as repeated risks of abandonment or rejections by parents, or to parent's or siblings' diseases or death for which the child seems liable. The truanting of the children could be a result of the feeling that they believed 'deserted' following the loss of life of Susan who at one stage brought up them for 3 years when their parents transferred to the united kingdom and may have bonded with the kids. They are surviving in the same house which could have stored them close.

A key process of an attachment based mostly practice is the acknowledgment that small children develop a range of adaptive strategies that can help them handle, survive and function in whatever situations they happen to find themselves, The children could be truanting as way of dealing with the loss.

As Eustace is thinking about and possibly searching for his wife, it could be that he is thinking about joining her better half where ever she actually is. This brings Eriksson's phases of development Integrity v Despair. Integrity is contentment using what you have achieved and Despair is the feeling to have achieved nothing at all. As Eustace could be nearing the finish of his life he'll probably look back with integrity. He had his child who also got married and experienced her own family. He has lived for more than sixty years and although it does not look like he resided a porch life he was not homeless and up to this day still has a adoring daughter taking care of him. Eustace is going to be looking forward to dying with contentment.

Applying sociological and emotional theories as well as interpersonal work values is a challenge for me personally considering my ethnic track record of African origin as much as the Johnson family who travelled to stay in the united kingdom, a country with different norms, cultures and values. I feel I empathise more with the Johnson family, with regards to the impact of new norms, culture and a new approach to life.

Studying communal work has challenged a few of my values and prejudices and therefore the toleration of others, provide acknowledgement and capability to struggle discrimination. Adherence of work principles have provided me with further knowledge of being respectful of other peoples, views, religion, culture and preferences which is of paramount relevance to become a social work practitioner. (GSCC 2002).

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