Understanding The Theories Of Criminal Patterns Sociology Essay

The problem of criminal offenses and delinquency is one of critical issues in most societies and of great concern for decision manufacturers. There's a rapid response by politicians for changes in rates and types of crimes for parents or juveniles to take care of the same with momentary alternatives such as imprisonment, increasing financial support to resolve such problems and creating ideas to reduce crimes (Kumpfer, 1999). Governments often take a look at crime issue from cost-effective and financing perspective - how much does indeed crime cost the state of hawaii? Crimes costs Britain 4 million pound each day in addition to mental health cost of offense and population terror, particularly aged people (Holdway, 1996). (Kumpfer, 1999) views that delinquency in American contemporary society such as youth crimes, early intimate deviations and substance abuse, are behavioral problems in American modern culture, which cause serious concern in the country.

If crime is a standard phenomenon, then how come it increase in certain cultures when compared with others? Durkheim perceives that criminal offense is inescapable and shown by communal change. Communities will vary from the other person as some areas have higher rate of crime while others have lower rates. Professional societies often have high crime rate, as there is a relationship between industrialization and crime. Crime doesn't only rises in an professional population but also changes the sort of crimes (Curran & Renzetti, 1994). Durkheim deems that immediate communal change in commercial societies and town drives increase in crime rate. This is one of results resulting from industrialization (Curran & Renzetti, 1994).

Juvenile delinquency, as public phenomenon, has been a material for theoretical ideas and experimental studies in sociology, especially since the second half of nineteenth century. Most traditional sociologists viewed delinquency as a occurrence resulting from external factors. Theoretical development in "Anomie" principle and public irregularity through(Durkheim)(1968) and(Recreation area et al. , 1967) and alienation idea through Marx (1963) have added to European cultural interpretation of incrimination and delinquency like the studies that found a romance between delinquent tendencies and factors such work conditions and poverty (Marx), time, sex and faith (Durkheim), urban development (Playground & Burgess).

Modern criminology has been affected by Marx's interpretations of delinquent action regarding offense and delinquency as political activities on one hand, and on the other hand, they believe the delinquency is a response against repression (Taylor et al. , 1973). They signify that delinquent action is the results of repression and control of the course predominating the lower category. New criminology started out from the perspective of public control system alternatively than delinquent habit habits. (Berlins et al. , 1974), check out delinquency in modern culture from point of view that children delinquency doesn't imply that the problem is merely deviation of children; rather the challenge is significantly related to juvenile's family, college, friends and public setting.

Social Control Theory

Social control theory has dominated on the deviance theory for decades, and it interested especially in mechanisms of communal control for family and school (Hirschi, 1969). The primary assumption in the theory is that youngsters deviance because some of some absent or not effective control powers, meaning deflector of young ones aren't under the mindset or sociable control. There can be an assumption that there are two types of control systems which are personal and interpersonal, the main personal control is self-esteem. The cultural control is in the attachments of main sociable institutions like family and institution, and such accessories are often measured through the amount of connections between parents and sons.

There are four types of social bonds, (A) connection with others like parents and educators, (B) Usual commitment for goals and pursuits like educational objectives, (C) Participation with usual activities like spending time with family, (D) Beliefs in usual requirements. If such bonds are vulnerable, then individuals shall act deviance, and also if attachment with parents and teachers is weak, then your person will be free to behave deviance. These four types of social bonds are linked each other, so any defect of any type shall expose to have an impact on on other styles. Attachment refers to describing youth capability to combine with others like teachers, friends' groups, also to be affected using their beliefs, thoughts and objectives especially their targets concerning his behavior (Package, 1981). Involvement identifies participation in legal activities like when the learner participates in university activities. Dedication is compliance with traditional rules of social settings.

Interesting with family factors and deviance has mounted on family framework and the type of relationships inside the family (Geismar and Wood, 1986). The concerns of family development include broken households, which is the fact that some of biologists is absent because of loss of life, divorce or separation. The relatives relate to conflict of parents, relations of parents and sons, varieties of inspection and education.

The familiar factors has an connection with deviance in case of all youth regardless to age, racism, interpersonal category and sex, (Hirschi, 1969). Therefore, the school has become from the important factors in public control theory, and through the focusing on importance of institution and its connection with deviance has created future strategies for academics success and creation of any positive relationship with teachers. On the other hand, failures at institution or dismissed are publicity for deviance because their forwarding for future are frustrated with a qualification which is considered as hey of god income, (Package, 1981). The communal control theory says that compliance relies on the bond between your person and public system. When such connection is weak, there will be a possibility for deviance. There in important concentrate on the key and basic relationships among parents, university and friends' teams as main resources for requirements and regulations. The relation between the familiar modifications and the deviance tendencies, which is described it in communal control theory, could be experienced in the experimental studies.

Strain Theories

Strain theories focus on interpersonal factors that drive youngsters to delinquent habit. (Durkheim, 1984) taken notice of social rules and stated that it is essential to prevent delinquency. Public strain theories, such as those of Merton, Cohen, Cloward & Ohlin, on the other side, consider that chaos in social order boosts delinquency.

The key to any interpretation of pressure in juvenile delinquency (Cloward & Ohlin, 1960; Cohen, 1955; Merton, 1956) is the fact that some teenagers are droven to conflict with regulation in response to social failure or disappointment from an event. Such people have goals in the society but means should be lawful to be able to achieve the same while such lawful means to success are shut.

(Merton, 1992) clarified that cultural structure has generated inhomogeneous situations of replies and created relationship between social ambition and sociable framework means.

Cloward and Ohlin (1961) have assumption which included that the opportunity for different kinds of illegitimate activities can be an important adjustable for the response of delinquents. Cloward and Ohlin indicated that strains between frustrations in inexpensive success and failing of opportunities leading to success are more influential on children category in lower school and therefore encourage delinquent action (Cloward & Ohlin, 1961).

Merton (1956) altered Durkheim's idea of anomie as he views that conflict among social goals (e. g. riches, electric power, prestige) and lawful institutional means for attaining such goals is a main way to obtain anomie. Merton used anomie principle not only in interpretation of suicide but also in a variety of types of delinquent tendencies. He attemptedto explore how cultural structure places stress on individuals in the modern culture to enter into non-homogeneousness more than resulting in homogeneousness. If we want to place a particular group under strains, then we have to expect higher rate of delinquent habit in such group because they taken care of immediately such interpersonal situation where they found themselves included (Merton, 1969).

Through this perspective, social structure is active and effective in creating types and design of action. Therefore, focus on sociable system and impact of benchmarks shall build individual's patterns. Merton noticed that society encourages its people to be ambitious for prosperity and prestige but allows a restricted number of these to achieve this pursuit.

Subculture Theories

Among important public schools in analysis of juvenile delinquency is the fact focused on characteristics of subcultures of categories that contain their own ideals, beliefs and standards, vocabulary and lifestyle. Tries to interpret juvenile delinquency and subcultures have speedily developed in recent ages because modern societies encompass different subcultures and conducts in keeping with the criteria of a particular sub-culture, which might be considered as delinquency outside such culture (Giddens, 1997). Subcultures ideas attempt to clarify delinquency through delinquent gangs that contain certain conditions because of their standards derived from internal social legislation, which constitute cultural pattern of action in class structure in the culture.

The importance of theories on subcultures sits the fact that they are a key to convey beliefs in deciding delinquent behavior. Focus is located on such factors as failure of the working class children to compete to improve their situations and training in provide them with prestige in the modern culture. Working school children have beliefs that opportunities won't await them until they graduate from school, and distinctions racism between cultural groups, conflicts and marginalization experiences by the next era of immigrants (Matza, 1964). Matza sees that delinquency is the result of conduct by a lot of people in a particular manner, which really is a response to serves. Subsequently, what we call delinquent activity can be identified social effect.

Sutherland, argued that the criminal behavior is gained and discovered from the main organizations especially peers group. Sutherland sees in theory of differential connection that compliance and deviance are from the types of the gained habit, and both of these will come in the sage of cultural upbringing which happen to person during his interact with others. The main hypothesis in this theory is usually that the social context for learning deviance and compliance has increased in the capitalism industrial societies because people are growing in such countries, and the life in these complicated societies is composed from groupings have a turmoil with ideals and standards against laws.

The ideas of subculture has been successful in using experimental researches in interpreting deviance action (e. g. (Gordon et al. , 1963);(Rossi et al. , 1974) has found an important different results through skills of cultural categories for pressing them to standard legal conditions through measuring main statistics such as income and job.

To summarize, one of power matters in social control theory is the fact that researchers can merge its items with other ideas of deviance such as stress and Sutherland. Aswell as the public control theory has resented a great capacity in interpretation of deviance patterns, not illustrating of all variants related to deviance habit, but it exhibited a high relationship and connection among deviance, family's conditions and scholar activities. The interpersonal control theory can't make clear which factor can destroy the public bonds and create deviance habit. Answering such question needs other perspectives.

Conclusion

Te interpersonal studies in delinquency of young people have focused on development of different ideas for understanding and explaining delinquent patterns. The assumptions of the main item of this research have developed three main theories orientation which can be known as the theories of pressure, subculture and public control. The two theories of pressure and social control have focused on the socio-economic position, and they have distributed tacitly that the delinquent tendencies is association to the weakness of socio-economic status. Both of pressure and subculture theories have focused that the key desire for delinquent action is established by public conditions (Merton, 1938;Cohen, 1966;Cloward&Ohlin, 1960). The public control theory on the other side, considers that there are some factors for protecting against delinquency and they're called interpersonal bonds (Nye, 1958;Hirschi, 1969). Where they consider that the items which control young people from delinquency will be the bonds, romantic relationships with parents and college.

The main subject in this research with the family factors is concentrated around the nature of human relationships between parents- children and family stableness. The cultural control theory predict that such attachment with the family can decrease the delinquent patterns, on the other hand, the young people who come from young families with less stableness may face a higher ratio of delinquent patterns. The sociable control theory also concentrate on that the negative guidelines towards university (Hircshi, 1969;(Hindelan. Mj, 1973), the positive thoughts towards teachers may be a chance for lowering committing the draft tendencies. The kind of associations inside home and college predicts the delinquent tendencies. The young people who their relationship are good using their parents are less choosing delinquent behavior, however the young junior have weak connections with parents and educators go for committing delinquent behavior. The amount of time spent by young children with peers, and the peers are another theme can be known for explaining deliquent tendencies. (Miller, 1981) considers that the subculture theory has referred that there is centrifugal romantic relationship between choosing friends and deliquency. The institution is trying to check the theme extracted from theories of strain, subculture and social control, for finding a comprehensive understanding for delinquent action inside express of Kuwait and this abstract approach will be identify by interviews with delinquent juveniles.

I have chosen some designs from these three ideas of tension, subculture and cultural control. The delinquency has many factors and they couldn't be analyzed in one interview. Some experimental studies have guaranteed that some items of these ideas aren't important "involvement" as something of sociable control theory has been neglected because many experimental studies have referenced that "it is not important" (Elliott et at. , 1985;Agnew, 1991). And I've determined in the study some themes that have been very important and clear in a few previous researched for the same theories. The delinquency of teenagers is often attached to the weakness of socio-economic status, poverty of parents and les attach to institution, and the attachment with peers group.

Second Section ??

There are two theoretical methods in examining delinquency reasons. The first strategy focuses on qualifications variables. With this connection, strain and subculture theories determine determination for delinquency through deposition of increasing frustrations due to unfair composition. The second procedure includes situational results. Cultural control theory centered on inability of family and school encounters to be cultural bonds.

This structural strategy (tension and subculture theories) and public control theory provide difference in deciding causes for delinquent patterns. In general, structural methodology adopts the view that individual's socio-economic status, as causative varying, brings about committing delinquency. This trend emphasizes varied structural strains driving the given individual to delinquency. Alternatively, cultural control theory indicates fragile or loose bonds where an individual becomes 'free' to commit delinquent activities. Matching to this theory, existence of special determination is not needed for committing delinquent habit.

Delinquency theories differ in their content, there is absolutely no one theory that interprets all types of delinquency. Each of different concentrations has talents and weaknesses. In each theory, we find several themes or templates that give strength to its interpretations. Some sociologists focused on integration of different ideas in their works (e. g. Eve, 1978; Johnson, 1979;(Elliott et al. , 1979) who hired their styles from several delinquency theories.

Strain and subculture theories don't contradict sociable control theory because they interpret delinquency through individual's public relationships. On the other hand, tension and subculture ideas are distinguished from interpersonal control theory in conditions of the sort of social human relationships that lead to delinquent patterns and inspiration for delinquency.

The notion of integration of ideas pays to in interpreting why teenagers engage in delinquent behavior. Important elements in these three ideas are socioe-conomic status of the family and attitude towards parents, university and peers. This research is dependant on the assumption that there are situational and motivational factors that would drive teenagers to delinquent patterns. Throughout integration of ideas, there can be an assumption that delinquent tendencies starts off with assumption of cultural companies such as family and school. Further, social control theory shows how delinquent tendencies develops and also through the individual's position in interpersonal system, And in addition as indicate of Tension and subculture ideas association with trend to delinquent tendencies.

There are two packages of themes that make interpretation strong in this assumption. The first place suggests motivational factors for delinquent patterns as the second set suggests restrain factors for delinquent tendencies. Stress and subculture ideas are motivational theories while cultural control theory is a restraint theory. Therefore, assumptions in this study are based on that delinquent action is likely to be the result of socio-economic status drawbacks and weak controls.

Methodology

In this section I'll present the thesis methodology including the challenge of the sudy, research seeks, research question, then I will focus on the interview with individuals and honest issues for research with children and data examination.

Research Problem

The research is concerned with the backdrop of juveniles lodged in Public Treatment House, Juveniles Good care Team in Kuwait that is entrusted with delinquent juveniles and related factors that led to committing these to such House through their perspectives. Juveniles will make clear their conditions, primary problem and major reason for determination to the House. Therefore, the study will explore the problems behind juveniles' misbehavior in Kuwait's culture and why Kuwaiti juveniles' rate of delinquency is increasing (according figures). Nowadays, juveniles' problems are constantly presented through mass media such as runaway from university, fighting with each other inside or outside the school, physical hostility against professors and traveling car without traveling license. Social Health care House has been determined as it the entity entrusted with juveniles against whom judgments were handed for the first time, i. e. it is their first delinquent action and also have not been previously adjudged to be focused on the House. Researches indicate that folks with previous experience in legislations face more stringent actions than those who acquired no experience with regulation.

This research makes an attempt to consider the factors and conditions that'll be stated by juveniles themselves that led to determination to Juveniles' Treatment House; are these are economical, sociable or environmental factors? Are family income and marriage between a juvenile and parents among the reason why? Or encouragement and association with peers? Researches based on specific experience are good material for understanding aspect of adjoining environment effect on individual's behaviours.

Kuwait has entered into a socioeconomic change that damaged the family role, nature of family structure and sociable control as well as young ones behaviors, tendencies and social worth that have improved for some reason leading many people to delinquency. Expanded family was performing public control and guidance of teenagers but it became poor. Children's behaviors improved and some of them rejected traditional worth. Some researchers (e. gAlKandari, 2010;AlRumaihi, 1995) suggested that spread of new beliefs made from urbanaisation, modernization and western prices has impacted Kuwaiti world through different mass media and technological communication means such as availability of satellite that brings many mass media from different countries and in different languages.

Research Aims/ Goals:

Juveniles' offences and delinquencies are increasing in Kuwait, as according government figures; however, the situation of young people has been ignored by researchers in Kuwait and received little attention from research workers. Therefore, the key objective of this analysis is to explore assumed reasons behind involvement in delinquent habit by juveniles which led to dedication to Juveniles Care House. Furthermore, this research will examin the factors that aided with or urged juvenile delinquency, especially family factors like the relationship between the parents-juveniles, consequence and reward within the family, parental guidance, the link between parents and the juvenile. The analysis also makes an attempt to explore relations between the family socio-economic position and juvenile delinquency, and the impact of family income on behaviour and behaviors as well as the role of school and the partnership with peers.

The Study Questions:

What are the reasons that led to juvenile delinquency using their point of view?

What are the reasons behind engagement in their offend?

What is the relationship between your juvenile and his family with delinquency?

What is the relationship between socio-economic position of the family with juvenile delinquency?

What is the relationship between your juvenile's educational level and regards to university with delinquency?

What is the relationship between your peers group and juvenile delinquency?

Research Process:

The use of semi-structured interview is considered more for this kind of studies. Given difficult usage of Juveniles Health care House and work of another method such as observation by involvement, interview advantages include that the researchers can buy in-depth information on in studies where it is difficult to access the study inhabitants (Verma and Mallick, 1999).

Child centered Research

This research implemented child centered research procedure, which assumes that teenagers are an active agents in contemporary society and their perspectives and behaviour about their status in life should be heard, and that the study will be based on considering young people as subject not object. However, there is an increasing importance located in "listening" whether to a consumer on the market, a patient in healthcare clinic or client in social service field. Even though same structural constraints are present, people will diversely react allowing for a socially originated strategy (Bryman, 1988);(Leibrich, 1993). The study will provide young people with opportunity to discuss their lives, experience and reasons for delinquency using their company perspective.

Interviewing

Participants will be teenagers aged 13-17 years, who are lodged in Social Health care House, Juveniles Care Section in Kuwait pursuant to a reliable court judgment to commit them to Social Welfare Care and attention House for a particular period anticipated to committing a delinquent action that is punishable under Kuwaiti Juveniles Legislations of 1983, who are grouped as "Delinquent Juveniles". The study will consist of qualitative interviews with about 25 individuals. The interview depends on the juvenile's individual knowledge through his personal experience, viewpoint and interaction with his surroundings. This is an essential issue in this research where reasons are disclosed from the juvenile's own perspective (Bryman, 2008).

The interview will take about one hour depending on discussion nature and will be performed at Juveniles Attention Section where inmates are not allow to venture out from the Office to make an interview matching to rules in authority. Members will get a set of examples for some questions to be discussed in the interview to assimilate the topic matter and what's expected from them in the interview to be able to create shared trust between the researcher and participants, make them feel comfortable about the interview and ensure that there surely is no vagueness in the research on their behalf.

I will also present the method for turning recorder on/off so that a participant can stop it anytime through the interview. The members can withdraw at any of search phases at their single discretion. Research aspects, amount of information confidentiality and maintaining the participants' privateness will be reviewed as well as answering all questions elevated by participants about the research(Alderson et al. , 2004).

Ethical Issues

To ensure that all participants have understood the study process will help in the study management. Factor should be given to what could happen throughout research process in addition to the importance of moral issues in this research where the participants are considered as 'susceptible group'. Attention will be paid to ensure to internal, mental and physical well-being of participants (Alderson et al. , 2004). I will start the research after making certain the members have a comprehensive understanding of the study. I will give a 'consent form' to the participants before commencing the interview.

Ethical guidelines manual of Uk World of Criminology (BSC) will be the key reference of honest issues in this research, in addition to using the Durham universitiy's college of Applied Public Sciences for just about any advice in hazy matters or issues requiring further factor due to lack of official reference for research ethics in Kuwait.

Data Analysis

Analysis of final data will utilize thematic research strategy for digital tracking, i. e. issues selected in the study. I will make transcription of digital tracking such that it becomes legible and divided by subject areas influencing delinquency for easy research. Aspects of data confidentiality will be determined and converted into anonyms to protect individuals in research. Topics and the relationship between matters and delinquency will be described and then start writing-up stage.

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