Work and work
Often the concept of labor is replaced by the concept of "work". You can say that "the person is working"; or man works & quot ;. In everyday life, the meaning will be the same. In everyday speech, we tend to use the concept of "work", meaning "work" under it. For example, we say: "The man went to work." However, we will not say: "Man went to work", although he went to work. Usually, to refer to a person included in the production, we call him a worker, rarely "toiler" (the designation of the times of the socialist economy). From a scientific point of view, the categories labor and work have different interpretations.
If the work is understood as the ratio of energy expended to overcome any resistance, then it represents a more general phenomenon in relation to labor. Work can be both organic and inorganic objects. For example, they say that "over the change in the terrain the wind and water worked"; The engine (or machine) is running & quot ;; "The horse works in the ooze" etc. In this form, the work is regarded as a mechanical action, which is of course also true for man, but not only for him, therefore, here the work is understood as a broader concept.
From the point of view of the sociology of labor, work is related to human activity but to the modification of an object and is treated solely as a process. In this sense, the concept of work narrower than "labor", since the latter, along with what is a process, necessarily implies the achievement of the goal, i.e. result.
Work as a process and as a result
Work has two forms of social manifestation. On the one hand, in society, it appears as a creative process , aimed at satisfying the needs. On the other hand, labor is a result that always has social utility.
The process of labor is carried out by a person in accordance with established goals. The latter are not invented by the employee himself and are not without meaning. On the contrary, the goals realized in the process of labor are always backed by the needs formed by society. It is very important that the achievement of the goal is as effective as possible. This will save man's energy (energy) in the process of his activity and get a greater effect. Therefore, the conditions under which the labor process takes place are extremely important.
Working conditions - a set of socio-economic and material-material factors of production, within the framework of which there is a labor activity and without which it is impossible.
Working conditions affect not only the labor process, but also the personality of the employee, contributing to its development or, on the contrary, to degradation.
Under favorable conditions, the process of labor is accompanied by the growth of new knowledge, which, ultimately, becomes the property of society. Therefore, you can define the process of labor as follows.
The process of work is the activity of an individual who uses the information of society in his work to form new knowledge.
In the process of this activity, products of labor are created that are designed to satisfy social needs.
The product of labor is the result of labor activity.
Work always involves a result. However, this is not any result of human activity. The result of labor is the embodied needs of society. They are always formed earlier than the process of their creation and the result obtained at its completion. The latter is an expression of what conditions and the process of labor contributed to its production.
It's important to understand!
The product of labor is not only a means of satisfying needs, but also the concentration of information about what tools and methods, using what materials and technologies, using what knowledge and skills a particular product was created.
Thanks to the product of labor, a person, on the one hand, satisfies his needs, and on the other hand, acquires the information contained in it. For example, a housewife who bought a cake for her birthday and tried it, found out that it consists of biscuit, cream and fruit, which would require eggs, butter, flour, sugar, and an oven would be needed to bake the biscuit. On the next holiday she will be able to cook this cake herself.
In addition, the product of labor can be judged on the level of development of the economy and the society in which it was manufactured. Each epoch creates its own unique products, previously not produced and used. This happened, for example, with the creation of devices for the implementation of mathematical calculations, which began with the first, invented approximately in the middle of the II millennium BC. Sumerian civilization, including abaca, Antikiterskiy mechanism, Counting clocks V. Schickard, Thomas's calculator, calculator and others and ending with a personal computer, indicate the level of development of human society.
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