In this statement I will be studying a travel and leisure site with specific ecological importance to it. For this I have focused on selecting a region with rainforests as Personally i think they are an important factor of ecological balance in the given global warming environment with increasing pollution in the atmosphere. After my primary search on looking for rainforests, I narrowed down on Asia specifically to Malaysia given its developed economy with a rich history of a large number of years of age rainforests still preserved without any intervention. I feel this would be an important factor in my selection to be a developed country it would be easy to understand more about the country's wealthy geographic region as there would be less language barriers with more research and knowledge along with ease in achieving these places. Because the rainforests tend to be more than thousand yrs. old, it might be quite imperative for the global ecotourism to keep up this devote the best possible management. It would also have an important put in place eco tourism as its one of the few places remaining on the planet which still has flora and fauna dating back a large number of years back again.
Tropical rainforests provide a unusual and valuable view of evolution and ecology. It is a location where there is years old types along with variety of species which coexist in this environment to provide ecosystem services like normal water, nutritional, energy cycling which is quite crucial for our planet. Of all the ecosystems, rainforests are one of the very most because of their large number of kinds and carbon stores.
Rainforests are straight responsible retaining local ecological and sociable conditions, if not well been able it will cause deterioration of local weather and species syndication would deviate. Over the years, quite little has been achieved by rainforest preservation moves, efforts designed to reduce both rainforest deforestation and diminishment have achieved little. Existing environmental and politics groups show to be of little help ecology as there continues to be a large volume of rainforest loggers functioning for commercial interests.
Rainforest reduction and diminishment is depleting the planet earth of its life-giving mantle and hence it's important that the ecological sustainability activity commit itself to ending major forest logging and protecting and restoring rainforests.
2. Academics evaluation
Architect Ceballos-Lascurain was one of the original researchers to create definition of ecotourism. He explained that:
"We might define ecological tourism or ecotourism as that tourism that involves travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific object of learning, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its outdoors plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural aspects found in these areas. " (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1987: 13)
During the time when he came up with this definition, ecotourism already been around in various regions of the earth. For example in the 1960's there was heavy over-use in the North American countrywide parks with traffic congestion and resulting influences, such as erosion. During this time, Yosemite National Park attracted 1. 7 million site visitors per annum (Johnson, 1967). In the recent years, other ecological analysts have modified, extended and developed numerous ecotourism meanings including Blamey (1997), Fennell and Eagles (1989) etc. Explanations are mostly predicated on the value of books with this is of ecotourism. Various experts advocate that the various meanings of ecotourism, in a variety of national and regional contexts, are essential to both resource and demand edges of the ecotourism trend. Contributions to the literature addressing this is of ecotourism are wide in range and assorted in merit. However, it's important that it's defined in order to foster strong and widely recognized industry criteria (supply part) while also providing visitor interests in reaching the ecotourism experience that they seek (demand side).
From my overview of various ecotourism explanations, I can infer that some mention of conservation, education, local ownership, sustainability etc while other meanings give attention to key aspects, such as 'host community involvement', 'natural areas' etc. The above definitions provide a platform to basic or develop further operations of ecotourism accordance with description. Here we will consider 2 definitions by researchers to help expand understand the scope available in ecotourism.
In 1994, Ballantine and Eagles explored some vacationers to Kenya based on a specific definition consisting of three requirements. This criterion was set up to be able to know a tourist's position as an 'ecotourist' and his or her classification based on three sizes: the social motive; the desire to visit 'wilderness/undisturbed areas'; and a temporal determination.
In another research in 1992 by Butler he developed a far more thorough checklist of criterion for the ecotourism position. This criterion focused on the other aspect of the definitional level. While it comprised a great deal of aspects of definitions found throughout the books, these things place certain constraints on ecotourism providers. For example regarding New Zealand where ecotourism providers go through various conditions for operating which was recognized by Warren and Taylor (1994). They infer that almost all of the ecotourism functions are small-scale and family-owned thus hardly possible commercially. These criterion and definitions also make it obligatory for ecotourism businesses to limit the development and growth of their commercial businesses and thus focus on the ideals of ecotourism. Another interpretation of this description by Orams (1995), is to suppose that ecotourism is extremely hard or that no ecotourism can meet up with the requirements of purist explanations.
Thus it sometimes appears that there surely is positive as well as negative effects seen on the 'softest' form of ecotourism. In 2001, architect and ecotourism researcher Ceballos-Lascurain mentioned that he assumed in ecotourism and not in 'eco purism'. The goal is to match as many of the standards as you can while Lindberg and McKercher (1996: 65) suggest, ecological tourism is 'postulated from a positive overall balance in environmental, experiential, sociocultural and financial impacts'.
The various contrasts which are present in the meanings of ecotourism give out the general inoperability of the concept. These kinds in definitions could possibly be viewed with a concentrate on the economic and environmental dimensions of ecotourism. Notwithstanding the rhetoric of lasting tourism development, economic viability is the bottom line of ecological tourism procedures.
Other ecotourism operators also face challenging barriers to commercial viability. By classification they must be small-scale, resolute in restricting the development of commercial operations (Butler, 1990) and, by implication, blinkered to monetary theory associated with economies of level. The suggestion that tourists are maintained by maintaining a proper ratio of tutorials to guests again brings with it financial challenges relating to rates and commercial viability.
3. Circumstance study
Taman Negara Country wide Park
Source: www. tamannegara. org
The case I would specifically choose would be on Taman Negara National Playground of Peninsular Malaysia which is one of the greatest covered area in Malaysia covering an area of 434, 350 hectares of rainwater forest. It is one of the oldest rainforest on the planet, projected about 130 million yrs. old. It is stated to have about 14500 flowering plant life and trees and shrubs, 600 varieties of birds, 200 species of mammals, 350 types of reptiles and numerous varieties of pests and other life forms.
I would like to verify here how is this place prepared from the turmoil of commercialization and possible steps normally it takes to enhance the same. There has been previous research which has centered mainly on different factors for sustainable travel and leisure however there is not much research on the relevant aspects like cultural factor apart from commercial benefits. Sociable factor would are the security and safety of the visitor whilst touring in such parts. Taman Negara must make its own definition of problems by understanding its own environment for possible problems and evaluating incidents which could have direct effect on the achievement of its goal. Additionally it is critical to have a bottom for the execution of structures, regulations within an corporation; to coordinate attempts with the government to mitigate ramifications of such disasters.
Similar to other business activities, ecotourism industry has to generate income to financially maintain whilst providing unique experience and sights to contend in this blooming industry (Weaver, 2008). Business scholars and practitioners likewise have argued those crises are unavoidable (Perrow, 1994).
An summary of the research on Taman Negara implies that service providers are usually unacquainted with any formal composition or system to take care of turmoil situation (Hayati, D, Noryati A 2010). This lack of awareness could mean that in case there is a crisis or problems situation the caretakers of the area would be unable to respond in a good manner. Also, the knowledge of basic turmoil management was seen to be less amidst the service providers. Most do not give concern to crisis management as there never have been frequent cases while success in earlier such cases provides them with a sense of assurance.
Another breach of restrictions here was found to be the lack of attention on enrollment of tourists, where a number of travellers acquired away without registering themselves. Since tourist numbers are documented which help in case there is casualties, maintaining an equilibrium on the amount of tourists at a particular time in the playground and other emergencies, it should be ensured that such files are enforced accordingly. There may be also illegitimate refuge from neighboring countries or serves of terrorism.
An group may therefore be over designed but under prepared (Dahan, 2005; Mitroff). Thus I conclude that crisis management requires different planning, steps and activities than daily habit management. Also Personally i think that advance preparation for such unexpected circumstances would maintain the best interest of a critical place like Taman Negara.
4. Challenges to travel and leisure industry
According to a research done on environmentally friendly industry by Lindberg and Hawkins, they explain ecotourism as a "responsible happen to be natural areas which conserves the environment and boosts the welfare of the neighborhood". Considering this statement there's a advanced of probability that due to infrastructure development or other known reasons for development in the traveler area some or the other part in this region would be damaged in a negative way like getting depleted of its flora or fauna life. In addition, an ecotourism area which is not supervised well would not achieve its goals to enhance the overall standard of living of the local community surviving in the holiday region. All such factors need further concentration and development to be achieved especially in reserved and unusual areas like Taman Negara National Park.
Being a location under special coverage, one of the primary attractions of the ecotourism industry is its abundant environment and exceptional species within it. Thus there may very well be conflict whenever there is a intend to develop the area for traveler commercialization and also to conserve the surroundings in such areas. I feel that if ecotourism in Taman Negara is not well maintained on time, it might lead to negative reactions on the surroundings. Also as reviewed before, the unusual types of life would also become extinct without ever being discovered. Recently there are several initiatives taken by ecotour operators to carry out their activities in a far more all natural way by adding ideas like recycling and using renewable energy in their process. Travelers at the National Recreation area are also communicated via signal boards and tour operators to carry minimum requirements when arriving in such regions and be careful whilst disposing waste, in order to not litter the place. Other regulations imposed are to observe all park rules to avoid harm to its biodiversity.
The management should specifically be keener on communicating with group site visitors as this might prevent potential large problems to the spot. Since this industry is mainly based on aspect, group visitors may cause larger damage to the biodiversity of a location.
A relevant example I've found in the next to vicinity would be that of Payar Island and Sipadan Island in Sabah. Lately both these locations observed a higher volume of vacationers visiting these places which is said to have induced irreversible harm to the corals on the islands. There have been cases where travel providers have over exceeded the limit on the capability of these parts.
Management of Taman Negara should consider such cases and protect the spot from damages due to over fill of tourists. Regulators will need to apply strict guidelines regarding the amount of tourists entering the spot and closeguard their activities to reduce any harm to the biodiversity.
Some other potential pitfalls I've run into through research would be the development of resorts and hotels close to the entrance portion of Taman Negara to support higher quantities of tourists expected in peak periods. These actions will most likely affect the local environment with techniques such as migration of varieties, earth erosion and water pollution. This whole process will determine the potential customers of sustainability in the area. Another aspect of ecotourism which must be considered is the actual problems experienced by local people and their communal life with the upsurge in tourism.
From the study done, I can infer that there needs to be a far more proactive methodology in managing potential hazards in areas such as Taman Negara alternatively than with regards to the zero disaster details maintained yet. In such a important place which needs to be maintained for the next generation, we have to consider its value not and then the united states but globally. Taking into account the study by Pearson and Clair (1998) wherein they state that the attitude towards risk is as important as awareness to risk. While the recognition to risk may be same in an instance but a proactive attitude may help in preventing potential conditions of negative situations.
From my research through publications and white papers on Taman Negara, I've found that the area lacks an official crisis management team to counter any such disasters, predicated on previous occurrences such groups are formed solely on adhoc basis between your various sociable elements in the region like providers, locals etc. While there is no official crisis management office in the region, the authorities shouldn't be complacent about the fact that no disaster has ever broken the image of Taman Negara as an ecotourism vacation spot as most trivial circumstances were well completed by the ad hoc teams thus eliminating any devastation or crisis situations.
In order to accomplish a long term strategic aim of maintaining its environment and image as a safe ecotourism place the authorities at Taman Negara Park will need to refresh its prospect on taking care of future dangers including immediate ones like landslides, fires as well as indirect in form of overcrowded visitors. There's a critical requirement of them to combine its turmoil management programme into all eco-tourism related regions. Few important steps to be taken which I feel would be helpful could be:
Research and identify loss exposures, digitize and record past situations.
Monitor and analyse current types of procedures for turmoil management and their efficiency and if they're on par with modern technology.
Creating a centralized information loan provider for information showing related to turmoil management that can be accessed by other similar ecotourism locations as well.
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