Nepal is a tourism destination country. Due to its impeccable natural resources and cultural sites, the folks from different countries are drawn towards Nepal. Likely, the influences are manufactured in terms of economy and socio-cultural aspects in mention of travelers inflow. In market context, stream of job opportunities, foreign currency, etc are made that has increased the living standard of people and profitable progress for the united states. Furthermore, understanding each other's culture and behaviours has resulted both positive and negative effects. If managed in conditions of sustainability development, these influences will be beneficial over time.
Aims and Objectives of the research
To know the financial and socio-cultural position of tourism in Nepal.
To examine the value, benefits and effects of changes in travel and leisure developments.
To find out the possible options, outcomes and problems faced throughout the market of Nepal.
2. 1 History and issues underlying the research
The perceptual of Nepal's current economic climate rely on the tourism benefits. Despite the fact that, the tourism situation has generated a lucrative work to improve the daily lives of men and women in a standard way, they have changed the frame of mind and behaviours into a westernized one little by little diminishing the old ethnical values and customs. This has enlarged an enormous concern for the conservations of social society that allures the foreigners. Typically the teenagers of society are largely inspired from traditional western culture with a feeling of superiority among others that has embarked an essential issue of less culture-follower in future. Furthermore, the natural resources are diminished for the provision of services to the travellers. So, the effective tourism plans are essential to be carried on a way it protects both culture and environment in a ecological run.
2. 2 Justification for the research
Tourism is a great phenomenon in the economy development of Nepal. Without travel and leisure, the economic developments are impossible in Nepal. Besides the excellent results for improving the life standards of people and country, more it has created side effects in related to destruction of culture and environment which might be an obstacle in the future economy. Furthermore, the myths of imitating international way of life for showing superiority among others have downward the real cultural worth. The equality between your good overall economy and respecting culture is very important to beneficial travel and leisure progressions.
2. 4 Literature Review
According to Agrawal and Upadhyay (2006), has brought up about the results of tourism in national current economic climate. The sectoral development of infrastructures in conditions of primary, extra and tertiary, increase in GDP and the pattern of spending money by travellers in mostly ambitious, hotels and ethnic industries has helped to gather the international lrevenues utilised for overall developmental tasks. Whereas, Gautam (2009) has also stated the more earnings of foreign exchange, job opportunities increase income in the countrywide current economic climate which is very worth for the overall development of country.
Pandey et al (1995) have depicted more about the local culture and traditions. The exchange of products from foreigners like cams, chocolates, clothes etc might change the original life style of people. More vacationer arrivals means upsurge in medication addictions, prostitution and significantly diverted towards modernized world. ( pg no. 21-25)
In distinction, Egbali et al (2010) have described about the negative and positive edges of the tourism. Because of the income generated from the foreign currencies, the country will get an advantage to save its natural resources and preservation of ethnic heritages. Also, the disadvantage of damage and pollution of environment like building the international airports, hotels, etc, seasonal work patterns, changes in life-style of people to adjust foreign's culture, the greater garbages created by travellers that can lead to more likelihood of epidemic diseases as well as deterioration of culture. (pg no. 67)
Sofiled(2000) in addition has claimed that if the tourism predicated on developmental or anti-developmental and either effects on profitable or contradiction. Also, the socio-cultural change is difficult to measure about such as loss of culture, corruption and ethnicity may occur intellectual dimension.
Another Khanal (2011) has argued that though it results on lifestyle of individuals and behaviour, there are usually more positive effects for it for the future developments specifically parts of Nepal. For instance, Bandipur, renowned because of its cultural and natural sites. The infrastructures of highways, electricity and recovery of temples are possible due to the incomes from tourism. Although the modernization theory overlooks it but the programmes related to need for cultural ideals will impact the visitors to protect it. (Pg. no. 28-31)
Raghu (2009) has pointed out that tourism also brought on direct and indirect costs to the economy. Increased demand for imported goods and products increases the higher price in the shops and it becomes impossible to buy for the consumers. Overdependence on the tourism might create hazards in the economic instability and the country has to put up with mainly the neighborhood people. More concentrate on urban areas lead to differentiations in prosperity terms and the upsurge in migration from rural areas. The worst habit like gambling house will be practised in Nepal even though the people aren't allowed to go into but this culture will mess up the economic position of folks of Nepal. Also, growth used of alcohol products will be increased. Overuse of historical places like car parkings, road engineering, etc will harm that areas but if used in right way then your tourism fund will restore these websites and also the development of museums and inclination to religious celebrations gives positive influences Hunter and Green (1995) (pg no. 26-27)
Pandit (2012) has also explored that the tourism industry is functional with its direct sectors including hospitality and food sectors, local handicrafts and indirect sectors are uncountable on modern culture. It brings more outdoor recreation such as parks, entertainment, etc which provides jobs for folks. Alternatively, the economic effects related to direct (restaurant invoice), indirect (expenses) and induced (employees' earnings to spend in their daily lives) effects. The negative impacts will be inequality among careers. People related to tourism sector earn more than others. For instance more women tend towards sex tourism by Bhatt (2003). On the other hand, the auto parking fees, hotel and authorities taxes paid by the visitors will be collected in conditions of revenue and donate to the development of that area and local economy with deduction of imports such as food, secondary supplies, etc regarding to Godfrey and Clarke (2000). Moreover, they have shown that visitors are kind of marketing way if indeed they get warmth and hospitality needlessly to say of they will tell to their friends to go to in the united states, is an optimistic challenge.
Also when both cultures meet jointly, mostly the number community realizes the value of these culture as a result of appreciation by other ones. The good attitude builds up between them which help to realize them of these importance of their cultural prices and begin to save it. More number of tourist's arrivals really helps to preserve the traditional custom as they learn and enjoy it and gives more preferences as by Mrababayev & Shagazator (2011).
According to Bushby et al. (2001) have disclosed the economical costs related to inflation, opportunity costs, dependency and seasonality where jobs available only part of the season creates negative effects. They also have expected the factors of extrinsic and intrinsic influencing socio-cultural effects. Extrinsic includes type and volume of tourists, demonstration effect and intrinsic relates to the demographic composition of employments in the travel and leisure areas. The frameworks for measuring are displacement( eradicating the people who are not following culture from that area) and relating to the community in tourism planning.
As by Page, S. J. (2009) has explored that the research of host-guest influences can be focused on the variations of the nature between your hosts and visitors in conditions of social, economical and culture, the ratios, the visibility, speed and level of travel and leisure development, etc. and the environmental results such as architectural pollution, coastal pollution and destruction of eco-systems.
Mathieson and Wall membrane (2006) have brought up about demonstration effects in terms of socio-cultural influences. The neighborhood people will imitate in terms of foreign language, dressing style and changes in the skill forms for the imports.
Theobald (2005) has explained that the less chances for local society to use the luxurious and natural facilities utilized by tourism according to overcrowding of vacationers. Also, the local culture and traditions are exploited to satisfy the needs of the visitors. In contrary, 'demonstration effect' is changed as 'Confrontation result' which affects the moral benchmarks of people. The other effect is 'culture agents' who speak the blended language of coordinator and visitor. Humphreys et al. (2009) have illustrated the financial effects on ventures and developments, profits and earnings, balance and payments. The socio-cultural effects of mass tourism shown in less developed countries like Nepal such as crimes and interpersonal problems. They have got suggested that it can be managed through sustainable tourism (good romantic relationships between hosts and friends) and providing economic advantages to locals.
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