Environmental management and sustainable development is one of the most recent ecotourism tendencies. The word environmental management first surfaced in the 1980s talking about the importance of organizations, populations, and communities to apply and handle their environmental effects. Conservation of resources and ecological developments are the key components to guarding and managing the environment, as well as handling the consequences of the tourism industry and other various industries. Tourist areas such as Costa Rica, Brazil, the Dominican Republic and other various destinations are in desperate need of implementation of the ecotourism pattern environmental management. All holiday destinations suffer from the lasting impacts of their site visitors, continuous building of infrastructures, deforestation and finally pollution affects. Federal regulations together with with community, professional and personal concerns, when mixed, can lead to significant advancements in environmental management.
The article, A strategy for creating greenways through multidisciplinary lasting landscaping planning, by Selma Beatriz Pena and other colleagues (2010), discusses an accurate method specifically to greenways by sustaining travel and leisure areas. "Greenways are networks of linear elements that are planned, designed and supervised for multiple purposes, including ecological, recreational, social, cosmetic or other purposes compatible with the idea of sustainable land use" (p. 971). Through the use of scenery in a cultural and natural process that will not have harmful environmental results, interpretation, knowledge and understanding is required for the sustainment of tourism areas. Surroundings is a sophisticated notion and system this is the result of the combo of natural and individuals force factors. The social and natural elements were integrated through an ecological structure this is the product of natural and fundamental systems. "The comprehension of environmental sensitivity can provide way to ecological development by aiding decisions regarding interventions from ecological, economic and interpersonal perspectives. " (p. 971) By the positive and helpful use of panorama alongside with continuous use, the management of the surroundings will continue to become known and more effective.
The discussed methodology envelops three stages of standards including eco-cultural research, synthesis and analysis, and the proposal. The approach consists of surroundings constructions and dynamics consisting of biophysical, energetic, vegetation and other various ethnical characteristics. The eco-cultural evaluation was utilized by searching and gathering valid information gathered only from field data and cartography. "The study of habitats is critical to acquire understanding of the territory and maintain the foreseeable right management methods. " (p. 978) Many other analyses including the biophysical aspect, geomorphologic dynamics, the vegetation research, cultural landscape, and the social and natural evaluation, compiled together the information had a need to make an effective proposal in figuring out the steps needed towards environmental management and the sustainment of landscapes. Protecting natural areas such as areas, meadows and forests leads to the ecological maintenance of ecosystems and it is the concept of managing the environment. "After the priority activities and the management actions for habitats that ensure ecological equilibrium of panorama have been carried out, it is then possible to propose sustainable greenways. " (p. 980)
The use of preference tests in the examination of tourist tastes for ecotourism development in Costa Rica, Robert R. Hearne (2002) talks about, "During the past decade Costa Rica has effectively promoted its visitor industry" (p. 154). Hearne also addresses the powerful aspects and innovations of ecological infrastructures and their extreme work towards safeguarding their natural areas via nature-based travel and leisure. Nature-based tourism is utilized "to market the dual goals of character conservation and income era. " (p. 153) To help expand make an environmental management impact, Costa Rica must combine within the visitors an appreciation for the type, sustainable infrastructures, given and defined limitations, as well as the acknowledgement of countrywide parks and guarded areas. A rise of tourists in any area immediately creates revenue, an optimistic result. While "tourist dollars can generate profits for local populations and donate to the financial self-sufficiency of covered areas" (p. 153), they also propose harmful alternatives on the surroundings including leaving their imprints on the land, lack of resources and creating a sizable volume of pollution.
Chosen experiments appear as means to evaluate the impacts on the Braulio Carrilo National Park anticipated to a significant increase of visitor visitations in the area. The experiments and checks are a thorough and accumulative analysis that analyzes "direct links with economic theory of derived utility that consumers' resources are defined over the bundle of attributes or characteristics of the purchased good or service. " (p. 156) A big majority of the park aspires its' give attention to the safety and conservation of wildlife habitats including pumas, jaguars, tapirs, quetzals, and eagles. Along with the variety of species, the park is located among five different weather areas. Therefore, an environmental management plan and experimental examination is key to the preservation of the Country wide Park and also to inform the area rangers the essential needs of the region. "This study demonstrates that choice tests are a possible mechanism to investigate user preferences for the management of secured areas in growing countries. " (p. 161)
The third article, Sustainable Strategies for the Brazilian Amazon Region: An Ecotourism Point of view, Raul Gouvea (2008) discusses the importance of implementing an ecotourism industry along the Amazon region because of the influx of travelers and having less ecological development accommodations. The Brazilian government has become aware of the environmental problems that might occur due to expansion in the travel and leisure industry. Each year Brazil becomes a far more known tourism vacation spot with the extended extension of hotels, theme parks and convention centers. Using the innovations of new infrastructures, the surroundings are affected from deforestation and major disturbances among the wildlife animals and adjoining habitats. Taking action now and considering the needs associated with an ecotourism trend such as environmental management will ensure the sustainment of the country. "Ecotourism offers an avenue for translating ecological development strategies into income and a possible alternative to financing the conservation of ecosystems. " (p. 89)
The Brazilian authorities has tried out various perspectives of environmental management polices since 1987. While using establishment of the ecotourism industry, the "protection and conservation of the visited areas, and initiatives to create benefits to the local communities as a way to promote the conservation of local habitats" (p. 91), are their two main targets tackling this issue. Collectively, with their centers, The Brazilian Tourism agency and the Ecotourism Poles Task and the Brazilian Ecotourism Institute, works towards a successful program of devising, identifying and promoting poles for ecotourism development. However, a problem that Brazil encounters is the lack of educated experts appointing the ecotourism developments. The three organizations that are working so hard to develop and use the ecotourism craze of environmental management are experiencing a significant problem with acknowledging where to start, finding the manpower needed for the necessary changes of infrastructures and difficulties with their communication and vehicles efforts. The only real answer towards long lasting environmental management in Brazil is that "several steps need to be taken to set up a persuasive eco-mindset in the Amazon region. The creation of the 'ecological triple-helix, ' combining the neighborhood private sector, local educational establishments and local and federal governmental businesses is of paramount importance to go the ecological agenda forward in the region. " (p. 93)
Leida Mercado and Wayne P. Lassoie, published this article, Assessing Tourist's Preferences for Recreational and Environmental Management Programs Central to the Lasting Development of a Travel and leisure Area in the Dominican Republic (2002). Ecological development, conservation of natural resources and preservation of the surroundings from the influences of the tourism industry was an important emphasis in the newspaper. "The hyperlink between market competitiveness and ecological tourism is very reasonable, particularly when the tourism industry depends on the uniqueness of environmental resources, as with the Dominican Republic. " (p. 255) The tourism industry may be a major affliction in the goal towards and eco-friendly environment. The correct way to evaluate that problem is to first incorporate the technical specs such as legislation and policies of the travel and leisure area to ecological developments. Also, to help expand help the ecotourism craze of environmental management, knowing the passions in sustainable advancements of travelers and other communities will help assist in creating awareness and add extra support to environmental management. This information first handedly studies "how important it is to elicit holidaymakers' choices of programs central to the sustainable development of travel and leisure areas since these preferences can drive managers' development decisions in more lasting guidelines. " (p. 253)
To further pinpoint the passions of travelers regarding where they like to vacation, a considerable amount of nearly 2 hundred individuals were interviewed. The importance of containing this information is because then your hotel of Punta Cana in the Dominican Republic, as well as surrounding areas, will take note which areas will require extra help in environmental management and ecological developments. "The primary factors that they considered when deciding where to go on a beach getaway were examined, as well as their choices regarding four programs made to improve recreational and environmental management of the area. " (p. 253) The travelers expressed their opinions in financial terms. In the results that they obtained, certain personal preferences expected of the tourists where cleanliness of the ocean and beach areas, prestige of services, and the overall price when going on a holiday. Also, they responded specifically to two of the four ecological development programs. The outdoor aquarium and this inflatable water Management Program were the main hobbies of the interviewed vacationers as they exhibited a substantial willingness to pay. "From the analysis of tourist personal preferences, it is possible to get conclusions with implications for both lasting travel and leisure development and environmental coverage. " (p. 265)
The final article that demonstrated the growing ecotourism tendency of environmental management, A Conceptual Framework to build up Long-Term Ecological Research and Management Targets in the Wider Caribbean Region, (2004) was written by Victor H. Rivera-Monroy. Tourism is the key income source for the Caribbean region. Along with the constant moves of tourists joining the spot, it places a lot of pressure on the fragile ecosystems. The surroundings experiences signs or symptoms of deprivation generally in most common areas such as the encompassing sea and watersheds. Visitors are also accountable for the injuries they leave in back of, the extra amounts of pollution in the area, the disruptiveness of animals habitats and the necessity of lodging accommodations. Because the Caribbean cannot do without tourists generating revenue, ecotourism is now a very popular trend due to dependence on environmental management strategies and support for ecological developments. A difficulty when assessing the introduction of the ecotourism craze is the fact that "there are few, explicit, long-term, thorough studies explaining the framework and function of Caribbean ecosystems. " (p. 843)
To address the situation of the delicate ecosystems, "a conceptual construction using environmental signature hypothesis of exotic coastal settings to develop a series of research questions for the reef-sea-grass-wetland seascape" (p. 843) was created. A complete of thirteen locations of different atmospheres and tolerance levels of environmental effects from both natural situations and exterior ones were noted with the conceptual construction approach. "This approach practices the strategy developed by the future Ecological Research program of the Country wide Science Foundation to establish ecological research questions best examined over generations and large spatial areas. " (p. 843) The thirteen options showcased different periods of tolerance from possible real human impact of the ecosystems. The devastation of coral reefs were the main concern within the research methods. Effects of damage made to the coral reefs may be from "sedimentation, destructive fishing, poorly regulated mining and construction and anthropogenic nutritional inputs. " (p. 850) The complexities that business lead to the destruction of the coral reefs entirely comes from the travel and leisure industry. The Caribbean region constantly preserves accommodations because of their visitors by taking part in deforestation, infrastructures of hotels and other facilities, mining and the engineering of the coastline and beach areas. All in all, the Caribbean has efficiently centered some main environmental damage made by travellers. The next step is to further put into action the ecotourism style of environmental management full push in your community to safeguard the natural areas.
The main reasons how tourism adversely affects the environmental management approaches is through the changes that ecosystems and wildlife areas have to change because of the "human ecological footprints" of vacationers, secondly, deforestation by engineering of both basic infrastructure and travel and leisure related facilities, and finally pollution of sound, water, and air However, because of all harmful associates that tourism has with the environment, it does raise a lot of probable concerns to set-up awareness to the environmental management security and conservation organizations.
Physical impacts on the environment primarily result from the structure of tourism and leisure related facilities such as roads, railroads, paths, airports, marinas, hotels and resorts, and stadiums for sporting events like the Olympics, National Basketball Little league, and NASCAR. Together with the constant upsurge in demand for tourism and recreational service areas, deforestation is the main cause to the negative impacts in the environment. Land resources such as forests, fields, and the countryside are being used for building materials, accommodation of the land, and vitamins and soils. With all the loss of natural regions, wetlands and animals is also exceptional damaging shocks.
In closing, all of the above articles discuss quite ecotourism style of acquiring environmental management procedures and tactics. The common theme among the list of articles is acknowledging the positive and negative effects of tourism. A positive result for the Costa Rica National Recreation area was increased earnings that was essentially used to help protect their natural areas. Other positives include new methodologies and advanced approaches for safeguard and sustainable advancements. However, despite the many positives, tourism also offers negative impacts on specific areas resulting in the desperate need for new ecotourism fads which includes environmental management and ecological developments.
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