Factors That Affect Customer Devotion In Hotel Industry Travel and leisure Essay


1. 1 Introduction

A hotel can be an establishment that delivers paid lodging over a short-term basis, including supplying both food and lodging to the general public. Corresponding to Wikipedia, the word hotel is derived from the French hotel, which described a French version of any townhouse or any other building witnessing frequent visitors, rather than a place offering accommodation. Some hotels have gained their renown through custom, by hosting significant happenings or persons. Early proof hotels and the hospitality industry have been documented as far back as biblical occasions when Mary and Joseph found its way to Bethlehem through the census. Folks have traveled for commerce, religious beliefs, family, health, immigration, education and entertainment, since the beginning of time. As a result of the influence of the Roman Empire, inns and hotels started out wedding caterers to the pleasure traveler in an effort to encourage visitors. It had been recorded that the first inn situated in America was in the entire year 1607 and lead the way with a great many other firsts in the hospitality industry (The History of Hotel). The first publicly kept hotel (the town Hotel) promoted in New York in 1792. The first modern hotel (the Tremont) was next exposed in Boston in 1809 and the first business hotel (the Buffalo Statler) opened up in 1908. It had been then accompanied by a surge of hotels flooded America and the rest of the world with dominant names such as Radisson, Marriot and Hilton.

There are three types of hotels which included budget hotels, business hotels and luxurious hotels. The budget hotel is targeted on providing hotel with basic necessities for travelers who seek to minimize the expenses. The business enterprise hotel provides more requirements such as internet connection, caffeine machines, hairdryers and daily delivery of publication. It requires more expenditures compare to budget hotel. The other kind of hotel is the luxury hotel. It really is targeted on providing the preferred service with expensive expenditures. The hotels' room would be filled with comforts, beautiful rooms with comfortable mattresses and bigger bath rooms. Hence, it gets the higher star rating compare to budget hotel and business hotel.

1. 2 History of Research

The hospitality industry is the fastest-growing industry in the world. It is not the same as other business, especially the ones that produce tangible products. Hospitality is people interacting with people. Besides, hospitality industry can be an umbrella industry for business which definitive goal is to please friends. People nowadays find numerous kinds of hotels that depend on the country's lifestyle and quality lifestyle. The hospitality industry has transformed itself into a global industry, and, as one of the largest industries in the world, it acts as an excellent example of an industry that has transformed itself in response to changes in customer requirements and needs. The opportunity of hospitality industry used through this review will be hotel. Hotels that try to improve their market talk about by discounting their prices run a serious risk of having a poor effect on the hotel's medium and long-term profitability. The hotel industry is major service sector on the globe economy. The industry encompasses an intensive variety of service industries including food service, tourism and hotels. It has evolved into an extremely competitive industry. Today, it's been recognized as a worldwide industry, with manufacturers and consumers multiply about the world. The demand and supply of hospitality services within the last two decades is beyond the original services intended for travelers have escalated the growth of the hospitality industry globally. It has leaded hotel industry to strong competition on the market place.

Tourism has fueled incredible growth throughout the annals if the hospitality industry because people love to travel and desire a place to stay. It really is an important way to obtain increasing Malaysia's GDP. Travel companies have almost managed the hospitality industry. It is becoming their responsibility to set-up customer's travel plans and offering specified rates. Along with the recent boom of boutique hotels, spiffed-up budget properties, and novelty accommodations, travelers can make a hotel that is really as much a feature as the vacation spot itself (Yashory, 2008).

The hospitality industry actually shows a sizeable amount of progress when almost all of the top businesses atlanta divorce attorneys sector struggle to make a profit. The hospitality industry is an enterprise sector that worthy of for those who looks for jobs and investment since it has provided about 21 percent of the workers in these institutions. It is about 5 times the proportion in any other industry.

Given the increasing arrivals of international visitors to Malaysia, the anticipations and perceptions of service quality, customer devotion, brand image, public relations have grown to be the secrets to a hotel's potential to identify itself from its competition and gain customer devotion. The ever-growing volume and rate competition is one of the greatest challenges encountered by hotel organizations today. Evident to pros (Lam & Zhang, 1999; Yen & Su, 2004), customer requirements for service quality products and service in the travel and leisure industry is becoming increasingly. Therefore, an ardent concentrate on customer loyalty is likely to become a necessary prerequisite for future years survival of hotel organizations. It is believed that firms can enhance their profits by satisfying customers. Because of the high positive relationship between friends' overall satisfaction levels and the probability of their return to the same hotel, the long-term and reciprocally advantageous associations between customers and the hotel is progressively important (Choi & Chu, 2011). Malaysian Relationship of Hotels (MAH), saved that there's been evident growth in the hospitality sector, with the average hotel occupancy rates having increased throughout 2007, from the middle-60% range at the start of the year to over 70% in 3Q 2007.

This research is a study to have a better understanding on service quality, brand image, pr, trustworthiness and identified value on customer loyalty in the hotel industry. It can benefit government to identify the factors that have an impact on the customer devotion. It will then help to formulate better ways of appeal to customers and preserve them.

1. 3 Problem Statement

Hospitality marketers have been long considering the concept of brand devotion because brands build steadiness into businesses, help guard against competitive imitation, and allow consumers to look with the self-confidence in an escalating sophisticated world (Aaker, 1991). Something can be an activity or some activities of a more or less intangible character that normally takes devote the interaction between the customer and service employees or physical resources or food or systems of the company, which are provided as answers to customer problems. Building and taking care of strong brand image is one of the main element motorists of success in the hotel industry to retain its customer's loyalty. Gronroos (1984) described that image is one of the extreme importance to service organizations and this to a great extent; customer's analysis of the assistance they received is determined by image. Public relations are also a significant factor which is defined as the "management of communication between a business and its own publics" (Grunig and Hunt, 1984, p. 6. ). In addition, trust can be an important construct catalyst in many transactional connections. It has been thought as "a psychological talk about composing the purpose to accept vulnerability based on anticipations of the motives or tendencies of another" (Rousseau et al. , 1998, p. 395). Holbrook and Corfman (1984) identifies that recognized value is an interactive relativistic preference or, more officially, as a relativistic choice characterizing a subject's experience of getting together with some items.

However, there is still lack of these studies in Malaysia. The press and newspaper publications and also effects of word-of-mouth towards consumers' purchasing decision were rarely discussed. It should be focused on positive or negatively promotion. This research aims to examine the partnership service quality, brand image, general population relationship, trustworthiness and recognized value have on customer loyalty in hotel industry. This research really helps to provide a better understanding of the importance and romance of service quality, brand image, pr, trustworthiness and recognized value on customer commitment in the hotel industry.

1. 4 Research Objectives

To achieve the study question, the research will concentrate on the associated objectives which will be the following

To study the factors that affect customer devotion in hotel market sectors.

To take notice of the aftereffect of service quality, brand image, public relations, trustworthiness and perceived quality on the client loyalty in hotel industry.

To discuss empirical results, solutions and implications in expanding customer devotion in hotel establishments.

1. 5 Need for Study

The review is to factors that affect customer loyalty among the list of private school in Malacca's students on customer loyalty in hotel industry. The analysis may be used to inform insurance plan making and decision making. The finding can also be disseminated in both academic and the general public spheres. For example, we can improve on our teaching methods and materials to affect the students also to assist them to become a successful business owner. (such as lecture notes and interactive CD-ROM). To facilitating increased understanding as why some individuals are motivated to get started on their own business when others in the problem they are not. This can increase the extensive that may be used as the foundation for far better profession advice.

Besides, this analysis will gain the hotel industry as it relates to their industry and effects it could have on the customers. The records show a 65. 5 percent in 2006 and 70 percent in 2007 in its average hotel occupancy rates which yielded a variance of 4. 5 percent. The relatively high number shows the value for the hotels to up keep their image and also pursue in positive public relations to attract and hold on to customers. This knowledge may assist hotel professionals to execute strategies that may ensure that the hotel will obtain commitment from both existing and potential customers.

Other than that, this research can offer information that may be a system for a series of related research and follow-up studies. Therefore, this study may give determination for advanced future research in the related area.

1. 6 Opportunity of the study

The selected society of this research includes students of Media University Malacca Campus. In the process of data collection, the respondents are required to complete the same group of questionnaire. The accumulated data will be examined using sampling method. A questionnaire was passed out to the customers to obtain their opinions and views regarding conditions that influence their devotion towards certain hotel brands. This research targets the perceptive viewpoint of their loyalty and consciousness towards the particular line of hotel brand.

1. 7 Operational Definition

Customer Loyalty

True customer devotion can be defined as customers' amount of resistance to competition' offerings (Gundlach et al. , 1995) and the persuasive techniques to attract clients (Dick and Basu, 1994).

Service Quality

Quality is often associated with satisfied or ideally "delighted" customers (Bergman and Klesjo, 2003). It is the general impression of the relative of the comparative inferiority or superiority of the organizations and its own services (Bitner and Hubbert, 1994).

Brand Image

Image is of extreme importance to service firms and this to a great level, customer's evaluation of the services they received is determined by image (Gronroos, 1984).

Public Relation

The management function that identifies, establishes, and preserves mutually beneficial interactions between a business and the various community on whom its success or inability relies (Cultip et al, 1985).


It is the level to which the trustee's behavior meets with the trustor's goals in a particular discussion (Butler 1991).

Perceived Value

A major tool to help the service agency to gain an improved competitive position in the market (Woodruff 1997).

1. 8 Organizational of research

Chapter one, a simple understanding of the research is introduced. Fundamentally it involves definition of this issue discussed, accompanied by the view and perspectives worldwide. Besides, research problem and the research objectives also presented in this section. Eventually, the justification of research is done to clarify the benefits and provide better knowing that can be gained from this study. Lastly, a brief reason of the entrepreneurship is also one of them chapter.

Chapter two is the literature review that will try to present a review of which hotel industry are and identify the factors that affected customer devotion. This chapter is principally about reviewing the relevant efforts from the past researches. Because of this section, articles, citations, and dissertations will be utilized to fortify the points brought up.

Chapter three is the study methodology which provides a information of the techniques found in this research. It talks about the types of data gathered and exactly how it was carried out to arrive towards the end. The explanations on sampling data, data collection, and questionnaire development are one of them chapter.

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