Differences between Child and Adult

In recent days, using of Internet has totally changed the environment in which where we live, learn and work. All together, children are frequently using the Internet and each is always accessing the online. Notably, children have limited knowledge for surfing the info what they want and more challenging to find and retrieve the results than the people. So, young children are having to control the designs that want complex typing, appropriate spelling, advanced reading skills, and understanding of abstract principles or content knowledge that is beyond their still-developing talents (Moore and George, 1991; Solomon, 1993; Walter et al. , 1996). Based on Jakob Nielsen et al. (2010), the distinctions between children and adult in making use of the design will be the children use Internet for entertainment even though adult is used for communication with people and their areas, children usually use 12, 14 point and adult use 10 point (up to 14 for seniors) for font size, children have little by little typing and poor mouse control than the adult that can do like as expert, children like computer animation and sound effects for their design but adult typically disliked and age-targeted design is importance between child categories but not necessary for adult.

1. 2 Investigating preferences of children

According to Dina Demner et al. (2001), children use computers and Internet for different purposes and functions which can be rely upon their like, dislikes, ages, interest, habit, characteristics and practices. The band of children can be categorised into four groups: 3-5 yrs. old pre-readers (only memorize the data that they learned before every day), 5-8 years of age beginning readers (begin to play cooperatively with other people), 8-12 years of age children (are more focus on connection between people) and teenagers (willing to investigate the new things but usage of Internet is significantly less than the adult person).

Currently, designers who made for children do not consider the children's skills and tastes. Because of this, the applications may well not be easily learned and utilized by children who've unusual knowledge (Hutchinson, Bederson, 2005). Besides that, majority of the tools available are for the expert users which are not suitable for newbie users like as children especially for children who have very limited knowledge in computer. The relationships of children with the technology depend on how old they are levels. Based on (Acuff and Reiher, 1997), the children between 8 and 12 change their interests from fantasy to simple fact. They learn to understand more abstract terms, longer terms and more technical terms. Researcher (Inkpen, 2001) analyzed that the children who age ranges from 9 to 13 like point and click alternatively than drag and drop. In addition, (Read, J. C. , MacFarlane, S. J. , Casey, C, 2001) discussed the various kinds of text type approaches for children. This research is restricted and compared to the corresponding research for parents.

In addition, color preference is also one of the key issues to investigate the preference of children. Color has a great effect on our live from early on childhood onwards. Coloring alters, evokes emotions, and affects our notion. Besides, preferable shade can increase the cognitive procedures (Boyatzis, C. J. , & Varghese, R. 1993). An test (Chung, H. Y. , et al. 2009) carried out the colour personal preferences among children uncovered that boys preferred vivid shades for yellow, red, and blue, and smart light tones for yellow, renewable, and purple. On the other hand women preferred light shades for yellow, renewable, and crimson and pale shades for red and blue. Design should be predicated on its targeted users somewhat than stress on conversation with users and the kids are not enthusiastic about the User Interface design rules (Shneiderman, 1998). Therefore, designers should be centered on looking the useful designs which will provide for children's choices such as development, health, communal activities.

2. 1 Why sport very important to children

Exercise can reduce stress that the children who have stress, depression, stress and anxiety as adult have. However, sport, not exercise, promotes growth and plays a part in improve physical and emotional health. Sport psychologist: (Dr. Glyn Roberts of the University or college of Illinois) stresses that sport can be an important thing to learn the environment for children. Besides, sport provides various varieties of functions and can attain valuable things that can apply in their life. They learn to work hard for receiving, study how to cope with life if face with problems, how to continue after failing, learn to listen, to stay concentrated, to follow regulations and many things that can help them to grow into mentally better persons. Another profit is emotional development which has how to handle winning and losing, how to try again if it is fail. In addition, team sport also provides the friendship skills which means that if the children want to succeed, he or she must help other users to complete their part of work and that can help to success in their lifestyle and also future life. Sport provide healthy, actually and socially expansion of children as well as psychologically and sociable skills. Furthermore, the attitudes and behaviour taught to children in activities carry to adult life. Involvement in activities can get benefits from being in physical form effective for children. It could improve health, develop quality of strong bone fragments and muscles and reduce excess weight to maintain a healthy weight, reduce fatness to maintain a healthy weight, improve cardiovascular fitness, provide camaraderie among people, reduce stress and help relaxation, improve self-esteem.

2. 2 Sport sites for children

Sport sites in Internet are very great for children because every child can contribute from its material. Besides, it generally does not have to have materials that support for sport and can play just have only computer and broadband web connection and producing mobile services. There are lots of available sport sites for children in Web. Inside our paper, we dwelling address some useful sport sites for children called http://www. nflrush. com and http://bettersoccermorefun. com. These websites are established sites and made especially for children. It contains about the positions for soccer, how to learn them, information about fun facts, getting guidelines and tips.

Figure1: Main Form of nflrush website

Figure 2: Main Form of Bettersoccermorefun website

3. Design a sports activities site for children

3. 1 Using internet by children

With the ubiquitous access to the internet, children have more opportunities been subjected in the light of internet and completed various online activities. Matching to Livingstone and Helpsper (2007), the amount of children being able to access the internet has continually increased and internet has become an essential tool for them to acquire information and communicate. Checking with traditional resources, web source is more preferred and employed by children (Bilal,

1998). Some data about children's web use has been examined, for instance, one study (Johnson, 2010) investigated among children whose average time is 10. 7 exposed that a lot of children prefer participating in online flash games and going to websites in a community place like peer's house.

3. 2 Sports activities sites for children

The fun and learning opportunities that provided by the Web sites is the big concern of children between 6 and 14 years old regarding to Baumgarten (2003). Besides, a good site also needs to consider expanding somewhat extent of complexness to meet children's self-recognition and different developmental levels (Demner, 2001). Therefore, a high quality activities site can go considerably beyond providing athletics related knowledge and skills, actually, they have much to provide to children, for illustration, fun, relaxation, likelihood of communicate and collaborate with peers and develop their pursuits. This perspective can provide a guide to the designers and help them get to know about the users' tasks and change design to meet their goals.

Therefore, understanding our users, tests and maximizing the degree of usability of the site is crucial. After analyzing this aspects of children and their particular features, each one of these should been given high account when designing the sports activities sites. Predicated on the data (Livingstone & Helpsper, 2007) gathered among Britain children between 9-19 years of age, it's been discovered that generally boys and young-age teenagers use the internet more often and spend more time on it when you compare with girls and older teens. Another broadly accepted simple truth is that guys spend additional time in football video games ( ), thus as the primary users of the website, the site design should cater for their favours, while at the same time not overlooking their female counterparts. Thus the features of boys ought to be the concentration of designers.

3. 3 Usability of web sites

As this is of usability (ISO 9241), it presents the "effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which given users achieve specified goals in particular environments. "

Brinck et al. (2001) has suggested some features that a successful web design should include, it should support unbiased exploration and communication, encourage the users completing their goals in an easy, successful and easy way. All these features can be considered when striving to design a sports activities site for children.

Many existing studies have followed participatory deign with children, this means the children actively and directly involved in the design process and become design testers and companions, have found profitable results (Read, 2002). The usability designers in Microsoft (Hanna, L. & et. al, 1999) have investigated in usability assessment by working with groups of children, and have concluded several design rules of computer products in the conditions of activity, instructions and display design. For instance, the activities provided should be interesting and constitute some reward program to encourage children to connect to, and supportive instructions should be easy to grasp. All these can be adopted for planning a sports site for children.

Considering the inhibited reading skills and comprehension potential of children, web articles moved through intuitive platforms like computer animation and audio is essential. An test (Khk¶nen & Oyaska, 2006) carried out among children has uncovered that children are more likely to learn from animation instructions, as they expect to explore the operation and also have fun from the site. However, according to their research success, a mixture with simple textual instructions is also important, as children may lost and feel lose something if only animation can be shown.

3. 4 Connection and collaborative learning of web sites

In a survey (Jonson, 2010), research workers have found that, respectively 60. 7% and 62. 9% of investigated children choose to visit sites and play online flash games in peers' houses. Allen (2003) also pointed that the cultural motivation, sense of attachment, earning friends and popularity, for illustration, is a vital factor for sports involvement of children in teenage. Furthermore, soccer is a team athletics, most children may seek online role play video games collectively. Therefore, entertainment feature of collaborative learning and interaction of the website is another essential matter before beginning the look step. Based on the research way of the collaborative learning project (Ivan & Michal, 2006), retaining connection among individuals, recording their characters and action, and then building reliable communication tools for these people is the premise for formulating a highly effective collaborative online environment. Just adding this into practice, a football site for children may create membership program to attract participation, diverse role play video games which can arouse eagerness, intuitive interactive activities, in addition, a corner for children to talk to one another, like discussion boards, online chat rooms are also praiseful.

4. Children's online behaviour

4. 1 children's online seeking behaviour

From the point of view of designers, identifying how children use the internet and their online behaviours is essential as all these things will directly influence the design issues. Many studies have been done in this area, for example, in one exploration completed among United kingdom children between 9-19 years of age, Livingstone and Helpsper (2007) have discovered that, the frequency and time spent of internet using by boys and young-age teenagers is a lot higher when comparing with girls and older teens. Another finding is the fact that boys being able to access to the internet in more places than their feminine counterparts.

During the study process of children's online behavior, Bilal (2000) has discovered that invalid switches (e. g. frequently shifting back and forth, going to sites), continual looping and little navigation are the prevalent problems experienced among children's using of the websites. The main reason has been attributed to the abstract and sophisticated representation of the net information. In such a context, straightforward symbols and children's familiar metaphors can be used to alleviate frustration of iterate actions and support their useful navigation in the site, and a good set up of content categories.

According to the outcome released by another experiment (Khk¶nen & Oyaska, 2006), research workers found that because of the limit learnability of help function, most children hardly ever use this part in the websites. However, taking into consideration the cognitive capacity of children and their degrees of computer experience, a good help function is necessary which is a critical part for their acceptance of your activities site. Thus, for this special group, the help part should be provided in a directive and intuitive way, long and monotonous texts, abstract ideas, ambiguous categories should be prevented. Besides, effective real-time help is more helpful.

4. 2. Contribution of Parents

Parents' participation is vital for children, based on the Eccles' expectancy-value model (Eccles & Harold, 1991), parents impact their child alternatives by providing differential levels of support for activities. They also proposed that the amount of support is dependant on expectations of the likelihood that their child will be successful for the reason that area, and the non-public beliefs about the value of success in that domain. The degree of involvement of parents in their children sport activities is also important. Most of the parents under involve and the majority of the parents over involve in their children activities. Under engagement means parents watch on sidelines plus they do not actively participate in their children programs. Over included parents excessively require in the jogging program of the children. They focus on on being successful and stimulate their children to get success in their working programs. Parents' contribution in their children sport make the child to get competitive benefits, the children can actively require and can do happily their activities with the support of these parents.

(include features for the participation of parents, teachers, interactive game titles, information the website provided)

5. Design Concepts for Children

Since designers design the system, they need to know clearly "Who are the users using the system?" If the system is designed for various users who have different knowledge about it, they need to give attention to from different point of view like what exactly are an individual needs and interests depending on users' profiles and personas. (children)

Norman (1988) defined user-centered design as "a idea based on the needs and pursuits of the users, with an focus on making products useful and understandable". He added so easy to comprehend and user friendly of the merchandise are pointing out an individual to let them really know what to do and an individual can clearly understand what is certainly going on. According to the Rubin (1944), user-centered design is techniques and steps for designing functional systems with an individual at the centre of the process. "User-centered design concepts place increased attention on developing products that are ease of use and simple understand by focusing on the user throughout the look process" (Dumas & Redish, 1993; Eason, 1988; Gould & Lewis, 1985; Shackel, 1991).

If users are elderly, text font size should be bigger than usual as they can not see the small font size obviously, voice end result should be provided more much longer than as common or rather than voice output, word productivity with large word font should be utilized as older people may be lost in hearing. For users with disabilities, the system designers need to work with more flexible computer software in order to aid special tools to them. For low eye-sight or blind users, voice productivity should be provided instead of message result. For the users who have trouble in hand function, using mice and trackballs can be a problem for the kids. Instead of using these input devices, speech acknowledgement device like tone of voice source can solve the problems for disabled children.

There are many important connections design ideas and there are many way to use those guidelines. As our newspaper targets children, we will summarize a few of the rules and point out what designers should consider when designing the interface design for children. Based on the (Heim, 2007), two main categories may be used to present the concepts in a systematic and organised way: namely success concepts and efficiency concepts. He defined efficiency as "a design that enable users to accomplish their duties in easy and simple and quickest way as much as possible and never have to do overly sophisticated or extraneous steps. " Efficiency and performance are the guidelines that support usability. According to the (Usability), the term usability means "The amount of convenience with which people can hire a particular device in order to achieve and increase usability". There are various design basic principle that are applied in individual computer interaction. You will discover three main design rules which support usability such as learnability, flexibility and robustness. Under each one of these categories, there a wide range of sub key points that have an impact on them (usability). Among these rules, the key points that are necessary for children will be mentioned.

Learn potential is the primary goal of an individual interface design which is the very important design guidelines for children. It they don't know clearly how to use the system and if it's very difficult to allow them to use, they can get bafflement and they'll not utilize this system anymore. For example, if way too many clicks are required to complete a task, children cannot memorize at once and it can have them confused. The next time they visit again, they'll not make certain how to go through to complete their responsibilities.

Responsiveness is also one of the look principles in which the response time of the machine shouldn't take long as users are children. If system response time is slow-moving, they may feel that the machine cannot provide what they want and it cannot work properly.

Children cannot memorize many things at one time like the adult. They can memorize well only one thing at the same time. For instance, when installing the program, many steps are required to complete. Users need to click on "Next" button to move forwards and need to choose location to place the installed software's icon. After all of the steps have been done, users need to click "Finish" button. Software unit installation process shouldn't be different. It should be consistent. If set up process for different software is not the same, it could be problems for users to memorize what as long as they do for this software to install and what as long as they perform for other software. When the installation process is similar for different software, users can forecast how should they go forward by calling storage on past discussion history.

As the emphasis users are children, the designers ought to know the characteristics of children and should design the website to permit them simplicity and should provide required functionality. From the examples of Heim (2007), the look for a sketching program should enumerate all of the tools necessary to create digital drawings, another example is the fact in a website, everything must be so long as will be required by the visitor in order to perform his or her goals.

For the children who are less than five year cannot browse the instructions by means of subject matter. Designers need to think about this factor. Rather than displaying instruction in the form of communication, audio, video, animation should be utilized to let them know what as long as they do to complete their responsibilities. For youngsters rather than teenagers, Sears & Jacko (2008) mentioned that "To eliminate the necessity for mouse clicking, the cursor is transformed into a major yellow superstar with room for five small actors inside it. As the mouse is organised over a focus on, the small superstars appear once at a time. If the fifth star appears, it counts as simply clicking that aim for. If the kid does click, the procedure simply moves faster". For the adult, double-clicking is no problem for them. For the youngsters, they don't know the action of double-clicking. Solo click action should be provided instead of dual clicking.

Conclusion

The following are design issues for children that should be considered when designing the machine for children.

Multiple navigations should be averted since it can be considered a problem for children and they can get bafflement on it.

In sport sites, if wording font size of guide instructions such as regulations for each sport is 12, they can not focus on it. So, words font size should be bigger than as common.

Youngest kids do not know how to scroll up and scroll down. This is the big problem on their behalf. Rather than using scrolling, multiple webpages should be utilized.

Radio switches and checkboxes should not be used as they don't have capacity which option to choose.

Search box should not be provided. They don't know how to search and they're slow in typing. Rather than search box, the mandatory functions should be put together on the display.

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