Lack of parental interaction

Zafi is the eldest child and he has two younger siblings. He was the average student in primary school without self-control problems. When he was 11 years of age, his father passed away. After the loss of life of his father, his mother contains two careers to pay the bills. His mother relies on him to care for his two young siblings as she is always not at home. Presently in supplementary two, his academic result is very poor. In class, he would maintain himself and would shy from classroom activities. He would sometimes cheat in testing and exams. The reasons he provided for cheating are, not having the ability to do it and he does not want his classmates to think that he is ridiculous. His form instructor tried many times to meet his mom to go over about his cheating behaviour and poor academics performance but she is always active with her work. After school, Zafi would experience his neighbourhood friends. Many of them are drop outs. They constantly informed him to quit school and enjoy life exactly like them. Zafi likes spending time with them as he thought they understand him best. They might also smoke and consume alcohol. He'd only come back home very later part of the at night or never.

Zafi's father possessed passed on and his mom is too active attempting to support the family. There is nearly no relationship between Zafi and his mom and there is no other important adult to supervise him at home. In short, the parental involvement is nearly non-existent. Using Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory and Baumrind Parenting Style Theory, I would associate how Zafi's parental connections and parenting style affects his context of development.

Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory

According to Bronfenbrenner, the lack of parental relationship is the most harmful drive to a child's development. [1] Urie Bronfenbrenner says that "there are two environmental conditions that are essential for human development. The foremost is that one or more people must love the child unconditionally; the second reason is that the individuals must encourage the kid and hang out doing joint activities with the child in and out of the home environment". [2] Zafi's mother loves him unconditionally but she actually is too busy to show it and she is also struggling to spend time with some of her children. Therefore, the two important conditions are not met.

Bronfenbrenner also developed a Bioecological Theory to explain the way the child's conditions can significantly influence his cognitive development and his progress. The theory consists of 4 systems nested around the other person with the kid being in the innermost. The 4 systems produced by Bronfenbrenner are: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. [3] The microsystem is where a child has immediate interactions with parents, educators, peers among others. In Zafi's circumstance, he has very little interaction along with his mother and he spends almost all of his time along with his neighbourhood friends. Inadequate interactions with his mother causes a breakdown in his microsystem and the bad impact he is getting from his neighbourhood friends is not helping in his positive expansion and development. The second level is the mesosystem. Mesosystem are linkages between microsystems such as between a child's educator and his parents, and interactions between students and peers. His tutor tried many times to create a linkage along with his mother but failed due to her occupied working arrangements. This plays a part in a breakdown in his mesosystem. The 3rd level is the exosystem. Exosystem are external experiences when a child doesn't have an active role but still impact the child's trends. In this case, his mother's active work schedule is the exosystem. Her two careers require her to work long hours and irregular shifts. This led to her having hardly any face time with her children. The final level is the macrosystem. Macrosystem involves things that effect and sometimes support the child such as ethnicities, norms, and laws and regulations.

The breakdown in his microsystem will affect the other systems as it impaired him to explore other areas of his environment. Minus the occurrence of proper supervision or love, Zafi will try looking for attention in unacceptable places. These behaviours will give surge to problems such only a small amount self discipline and no self way.

Neglectful Parenting

According to Diana Baumrind, parenting styles come in three main forms; authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, and indulgent parenting. Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin widened BaumrindHYPERLINK "http://www. law-of-attraction-parenting. com/baumrind-parenting-style. html"'HYPERLINK "http://www. law-of-attraction-parenting. com/baumrind-parenting-style. html"s research and added another parenting style, Neglectful or Uninvolved Parenting (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). [4] The degree of supervision and self-discipline shown by Zafi's mother is little, and there is no consequence for undesirable behaviour. She will not intentionally encourage Zafi to self control his behaviour and there is hardly any communication between them. These are the characteristics of neglectful parenting. Even though she fulfills her children basic needs such as food and clothing, unfortunately, she actually is detached using their life. She is also psychologically unavailable to her children. Neglectful parenting style ranking least expensive across all life domains. Children with neglectful parents tend to lack self-control, have low self-esteem and are less proficient than their peers. They often take part in high-risk behaviours and are susceptible to drug abuse. [5]


Bronfenbrenner said that to ensure healthy child development, one or more men and women must love the child unconditionally and they must spend time doing joint activities with the child in and from the home environment. However, in Zafi's circumstance, this is not possible for his mom. What she could have done to improve the level of interaction with her son is by communicating with him more through the telephone. During her brief breaks at the job, she can have called her son to enquire about his trip to college, find out whether he has ingested and to provide psychological and psychological support in the event his boy is upset over a school event such as a failed test. In this manner, the child has learned his mother cares for him and he can also feel his mother's love and love. She should also make an effort to take at least a day off each week to invest valuable face time with her children. If it's not possible, she should ask her parents for help in caring for her children while she is at work. There must be at least one adult present at home so that the child would not feel neglected.

As for the teacher, he needs to be versatile to modify to the parent's inflexible working arrangements. If ending up in the parent in person is not possible, he should at least retain in close contact with the mother or father through the telephone and to revise her about her son's learning improvement and behavior. In doing so, he is successful in building a linkage with the mother or father. Once there's a linkage, it will be easier for both professor and parent to work together to ensure the child's healthy development. The teacher can also inform parents about the developmental needs of children. Research shows that family involvement in schools raises student success (Henderson & Berla, 1994). [6] The great things about parent or guardian and family involvement include higher test results and grades, better attendance, more completion of homework and much more positive behaviour and tendencies.

Next, I would connect how Zafi's parental relationships and parenting style influences his do it yourself and personality development.


Children turn to parents and other important people for evidence that they're smart, suitable, etc. This data may be in the proper execution of encouragement, reward for accomplishments, awards, etc. If the data is not present, low self-esteem develops. [7] This talks about why neglectful parenting ends up with children with low self-esteem. Low self-esteem can have a big negative effect on educational performance. Once a child does inadequately in school, he will commence to think badly of himself and it may cause him to underachieve or make him quit completely. Children with low self-esteem tend to be depressed in college as they find it hard to make new friends. They might shy from school room activities as they don't want to seem incompetent. Resisting negative stresses would also appear difficult for these children. [8] Looking at Zafi's circumstance, it is apparent that he's experiencing low self-esteem. He is doing very badly in school and at home he never gets the encouragement he must make him feel better. He is also not determined to study as no matter how well he functions, his mother is not there to compliment or recognize his accomplishments. In class, he's worried to get entail in school room activities and he constantly will keep to himself. He's also not able to resist negative pressures from his neighbourhood friends. As he spends additional time with them, he developed a sense of belonging towards them and this sense makes him desire to be like them.


It is important that instructors consider and help students who suffer from low self-esteem as it can affect their academics performance and also their overall well-being. Teachers should be paying more focus on students like Zafi. They tend to have low self-esteem because of the insufficient attention, love and love. Students with low self-esteem will say things like, "I understand that I'll fail" or "I hate myself". They have a tendency to avoid getting involved in new activities and would have trouble making new friends and mixing up around. Stresses experienced at home such as parents arguing a lot and difficult lessons can have a negative effect on a child's self-confidence. A number of the things that educators can do to improve students' self-esteem are, to always highlight the positive, avoid criticism, established realistic prospects for the students and give them the opportunity to tell the school things they like about themselves. Those with suprisingly low self-esteem will have problem with even expressing a couple of things they like about themselves therefore, the professor have to provide prompts for these students.

Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory

Erik Erikson outlined the value of connections with others in the forming of one's own id. He thought that personality builds up through eight periods of life. He recommended that at each stage of life an individual is confronted by an emergency (Erikson, 1950). At this age, Zafi is certainly going through stage 5 turmoil of Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory which is Identity versus Role Misunderstandings. In this stage, adolescents battle to resolve the question of "Who am I?" They move using their parents to peers as a point of sources. They make an effort to clarify their own personalities. They are generally discovered to imitate the behaviour and actions of others they admire. In Zafi's case, his neighbourhood friends are his only point of reference. As he respects and admires them, he thought we would imitate their behaviour and actions. He'd smoke and consume alcohol with them till later part of the at night.


In Individuality versus Role Bafflement stage, adolescents will move to peers as a spot of research. As Zafi is not close to other people in school, he's left with no choice but to see his neighbourhood friends as personal references. What you can do by the teacher is to present pal system to set up low self-esteem scholar such as Zafi with a higher self-esteem one. The bigger self-esteem student may be able to help Zafi along with his studies and therefore increasing his self-confidence and self-esteem. Zafi may research to his buddy as his role model and so imitate him rather than his neighbourhood peers.

The teacher also needs to provide lots of opportunities for students to explore personality issues as they relate with understanding who they are as individuals. A task such as making a collage about themselves or writing their autobiography is an excellent way for them to explore themselves. The teacher can also improve students' self esteem by stimulating the students to swap negative self-statements with a confident one.

Lastly, I would associate how Zafi's parenting style impacts his moral development.

His mother neglectful parenting style resulted in him missing self-control, having low self-esteem and sense less competent in comparison to his peers. His low self-esteem induced him to have low self-confidence which led him to believe he does not have the ability to go his examinations. As he does not want his classmates to think that he is ridiculous, he decided to cheat in his exams and examinations.

Kohlberg's Periods of Moral Development

The reason why Zafi cheated is based on self-interests. From his reasoning, his moral development is within Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning; Level 1: Punishment-Obedience, of Kohlberg's levels of moral development. His reasoning is characterised with a concentrate on the outcome experienced by him as a result of his activities.


To minimize cheating, professors should obviously spell out the consequences of cheating and also to consistently follow through with these when cheating does occur. Educators can also help students overcome the necessity to cheat by giving the student with extra help and lowering student anxiety. Scholar stress can be reduced by emphasizing that errors are fine and an integral part of learning.

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